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  • 1930s street scene in the Jewish quarter of Paris

    Photo

    Street scene in the Jewish quarter of Paris before World War II and the Holocaust. Paris, France, 1933–39.

    1930s street scene in the Jewish quarter of Paris
  • 1938: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of Nazi Germany during 1938.

    1938: Key Dates
  • Gurs

    Article

    The Gurs camp was one of the first and largest camps established in prewar France. It was located at the foot of the Pyrenees in southwestern France, just to the south of the village of Gurs. The camp, about 50 miles from the Spanish border, was situated in the foothills of the Pyrenees Mountains northwest of Oloron-Sainte-Marie. The French government established the Gurs camp in April 1939, before war with Germany and well before the occupation of France in June 1940. Originally, Gurs served as a…

    Tags: Gurs camps France
    Gurs
  • The Biological State: Nazi Racial Hygiene, 1933–1939

    Article

    Nazism was “applied biology,” stated Hitler deputy Rudolf Hess. During the Third Reich, a politically extreme, antisemitic variation of eugenics determined the course of state policy. Hitler’s regime touted the “Nordic race” as its eugenic ideal and attempted to mold Germany into a cohesive national community that excluded anyone deemed hereditarily “less valuable” or “racially foreign.” Public health measures to control reproduction and marriage aimed at strengthening the “national…

    The Biological State: Nazi Racial Hygiene, 1933–1939
  • 1935: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1935.

    Tags: key dates
    1935: Key Dates
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Article

    Learn about the provisions and impact of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, including the "War Guilt Clause" which held Germany responsible for starting World War I.

    Tags: World War I
    Treaty of Versailles
  • The Nazi Camp System: Terminology

    Article

    What is the difference between a “concentration camp” and a “killing center”? Learn about the history of these terms and what they meant in the context of Nazi oppression and murder.

    The Nazi Camp System: Terminology
  • Margit Morawetz

    ID Card

    When Margit was a baby, her family moved from Austria to Prague, Czechoslovakia. Her father was a banker from a religious Jewish family in Bohemia and her mother came from a Viennese family of Jewish origin. Margit knew many languages: Czech, French, English and German, which she spoke with her family. 1933-39: In 1938, when Margit was 16, attacks on Jews in central Europe escalated and her parents decided she should leave. She left secondary school in Prague and went to Paris, where she studied…

    Tags: Paris France
    Margit Morawetz
  • World War II in Europe

    Article

    World War II in Europe During World War II, Germany overran much of Europe using a new tactic called the "Blitzkrieg" (lightning war). Blitzkrieg involved the massing of planes, tanks, and artillery. These forces would break through enemy defenses along a narrow front. Air power prevented the enemy from closing the breach. German forces encircled opposing troops, forcing them to surrender. Using the Blitzkrieg tactic, Germany defeated Poland (attacked in September 1939), Denmark (April 1940), Norway…

    Tags: World War II
    World War II in Europe
  • Wolfgang Munzer

    ID Card

    An only child, Wolfgang was born in Berlin to Jewish parents. His father was the foreign representative for a sewing notions company. The family lived in a comfortable apartment in the southwestern district of the city. Wolfgang attended secondary school there and hoped to become an electrical engineer. 1933-39: When the Nazis came to power, Wolfgang's father fled Germany because he was a socialist and was afraid he'd be arrested. Wolfgang's mother was very ill, so his grandmother took care of him until…

    Wolfgang Munzer

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