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  • Elie Wiesel Timeline and World Events: 1928–1951


    Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Learn about key events in the world and his life from 1928–1951.

    Elie Wiesel Timeline and World Events: 1928–1951
  • Sandor Alexander Bokshorn

    ID Card

    Sandor grew up in Budapest where his father was a furrier. Sandor attended a Jewish school until he was 14 and then entered a business school run by the chamber of commerce. After he graduated in 1929, he entered his father's business. Sandor then spent a year studying at the Sorbonne in Paris before entering university in Budapest to study economics. 1933-39: As a Jew, Sandor was in the minority at the university because anti-Jewish laws enacted in the 1920s had set quotas that limited Jewish applicants.…

    Sandor Alexander Bokshorn
  • Anti-Jewish Legislation in North Africa


    The Vichy regime introduced race laws to the North African territories in October of 1940. Learn about the impact of the laws on the region’s Jewish people.

    Anti-Jewish Legislation in North Africa
  • Wartime Fate of the Passengers of the St. Louis


    In May 1939, the St. Louis set sail from Germany to Cuba. Most of the passengers, fleeing Nazi Germany, were denied entry. Learn more about their fates.

    Wartime Fate of the Passengers of the St. Louis
  • Klaus Mann


    Klaus Mann was a German author whose novel “Mephisto” exposed the evil of the Nazi dictatorship. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in May 1933. Learn more.

  • France


    Learn about France during the Holocaust and WWII, the liberation of France, postwar trials, and the legacy of Vichy France’s collaboration with Nazi Germany.

  • Les Milles Camp


    Under the Vichy regime, the Les Milles camp held foreign Jews before emigration or, in most cases, deportation to German concentration camps and killing centers.

    Tags: camps
    Les Milles Camp
  • Elie Wiesel Timeline and World Events: From 1952


    Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Explore key events in the world and his life from 1952 until his death in 2016.

    Elie Wiesel Timeline and World Events: From 1952
  • The Vélodrome d'Hiver (Vél d'Hiv) Roundup


    The Vélodrome d'Hiver (or Vél d'Hiv) roundup was the largest French deportation of Jews during the Holocaust. It took place in Paris on July 16–17, 1942.

    The Vélodrome d'Hiver (Vél d'Hiv) Roundup
  • Paris


    When the Germans invaded France in May 1940, about 175,000 Jews resided or had found refuge in Paris. Many initially left the city, only to return after the armistice was signed in June and Paris became the seat of the German military administration. The majority of Parisian Jews lived in the 4th, 11th, 18th, and 20th districts. By late September 1940, a German census registered 150,000 Jews in Paris, including 64,000 foreigners. The persecution of Jews in Paris began in October 1941, when the Nazis…

  • Josef Nassy


    A Black expatriate artist living in Belgium upon the outbreak of WWII, Josef Nassy was held in German internment camps during the war. Learn about his experiences.

  • Abdol Hossein Sardari (1895–1981)


    Iranian diplomat Abdol Hossein Sardari gave critical assistance to Iranian Jews in occupied France (1940-1944) to protect them from Nazi persecution.

  • William L. Shirer


    American journalist, foreign correspondent, author, and pioneer radio broadcaster William L. Shirer was one of the key observers and chroniclers of the Nazi regime.  

  • Swastika flag rises over Versailles and Paris


    The German western campaign into the Low Countries and France shattered Allied lines. Within six weeks, Britain evacuated its forces from the Continent and France requested an armistice with Germany. Paris, the French capital, fell to the Germans on June 14, 1940. In this footage, triumphant German forces raise the swastika flag over Versailles and over the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Versailles, the traditional residence of French kings, was deeply symbolic for the Germans: it was the site of both the…

    Swastika flag rises over Versailles and Paris
  • Drancy


    The Germans established an internment camp at Drancy in August 1941. The following summer, Drancy became the main transit camp for deportations of Jews from France.

  • Elie Wiesel


    Elie Wiesel was a human rights activist, author, and teacher who reflected on his experience during the Holocaust in more than 40 books. Learn more.

    Elie Wiesel
  • The Nuremberg Race Laws


    The Nazi regime’s Nuremberg Race Laws of September 1935 made Jews legally different from their non-Jewish neighbors. The laws were the foundation for future antisemitic measures .

    The Nuremberg Race Laws
  • Portrait of Herschel Grynszpan


    Portrait of Herschel Grynszpan taken after his arrest by French authorities for the assassination of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath. Grynszpan (1921-1943?). Born in Hannover, Germany, was the son of Polish Jews who had immigrated to Germany. In 1936 Grynszpan fled to Paris. On November 7, 1938, after having learned of the expulsion of his parents from Germany to Zbaszyn the Polish frontier, Grynszpan assassinated Ernst vom Rath, the third secretary of the German embassy in Paris. The diplomat's…

    Portrait of Herschel Grynszpan
  • Deportation of Jews from Paris to Pithiviers


    Jewish deportees, guarded by French police, board a train at the Austerlitz station for transport to the Pithiviers internment camp. Paris, France, May 1941.

    Deportation of Jews from Paris to Pithiviers
  • The "Night of Broken Glass"


    On November 9–10, 1938, the Nazi regime coordinated a wave of antisemitic violence in Nazi Germany. This became known as Kristallnacht or the "Night of Broken Glass."

    The "Night of Broken Glass"
  • Lucie Kupefer Munzer

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    Lucie was born to Jewish parents living in Gera, a medieval German city on the banks of the Elster River in the Thuringer Forest. Gera was well known for its manufacture of Leica cameras, for its publishing houses, and for the extensive collection of Gobelin tapestries in one of its museums. 1933-39: A few weeks ago, Lucie married Hans Munzer here, in Paris. Hans fled Germany last year because the Nazis began rounding up and imprisoning socialists, and as a district supervisor for the Social Democratic…

    Lucie Kupefer Munzer
  • Rosalia Wourgaft Schatz

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    Rosalia was raised by Jewish parents in the small, predominantly Jewish industrial city of Tulchin in southwestern Ukraine. She married Aaron Schatz, and together they raised four children in the city of Odessa. In 1919, when her family was grown, Rosalia and her daughter Ludmilla immigrated via Romania to France after Aaron was killed during the Russian civil war. 1933-39: Rosalia settled in Bagneux, a suburb of Paris. She spoke only Russian and Yiddish and found Paris to be a different world from the…

    Rosalia Wourgaft Schatz
  • Karl Marx


    Karl Marx was a political theorist and philosopher. He published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.

    Karl Marx
  • HIAS


    Since its founding, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) relief organization has assisted refugees fleeing persecution. Learn about its work during WWII and the Holocaust.

  • Armed Jewish Resistance: Partisans


    Facing overwhelming odds, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners.

    Armed Jewish Resistance: Partisans

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