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Manon's Christian parents lived in Paris. Roger Marliac, her father, originally from a wealthy family, supported his family by selling produce at small marketplaces. Margarit, her mother (called Maguy by her friends), had a university degree in science. The family lived in a large apartment in a fashionable neighborhood near the Eiffel Tower. 1933-39: Manon, the Marliacs' second child, was born in 1937. She was 2 years old when her father was drafted into the French army as the country mobilized for a…
Mayer was born into a Jewish family in a village near Warsaw. His family was active there in the workers' movement. They decided to emigrate when Mayer was a child; his father hoped to find work in Argentina. As a young man, Mayer was arrested for being a communist. In prison, he organized a hunger strike. The police released him to keep him from recruiting the other prisoners to communism. 1933-39: Mayer joined one of the International Brigades and went to Spain to fight in the civil war against Franco…
A view of Rosiers Street in the Jewish quarter of Paris. This photograph was taken before World War II. Paris, France, date uncertain.
After the first roundup in Paris, French police escort foreign Jewish men from the Japy school to deportation trains at the Austerlitz station. Paris, France, May 14, 1941.
A young man in the Jewish quarter of Paris wears the mandatory Jewish badge. Paris, France, after June 1942.
US troops march down the Champs Elysees in Paris following the Allied liberation of the city. Paris, France, August 29, 1944.
Foreign Jews arrested in Paris at the Austerlitz train station before deportation to the French-administered internment camps Pithiviers and Beaune-la-Rolande in the Loire region. Paris, France, ca. May 1941.
A group of Jewish women in Paris. They are wearing the required yellow badges. Paris, France, June 8, 1942.
Boarding pass for Dr. Walter Weissler for a voyage on the St. Louis from Hamburg to Havana. When Cuban authorities refused the passengers entry, Weissler returned to France, where he survived in hiding. He died in Paris in 1996. Hamburg, Germany. Date of pass, May 13, 1939.
German troops overran Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France in six weeks starting in May 1940. Anti-Jewish measures soon followed in occupied western Europe.
Elizabeth's father was a journalist who covered financial and political subjects. In 1930, because of the economic crisis in Austria, her father relocated his family from Vienna to Berlin. 1933-39: In 1933 the Nazis blacklisted Elizabeth's father as an anti-fascist writer, so her family returned to Vienna. With fascism rising there, her father left, eventually making it to Paris. They were to join him, but the Reich's borders were closed to Jews. Finally, Elizabeth's mother used her jewelry to get French…
One day after France signed an armistice with Germany in June 1940, Adolf Hitler celebrated the German victory over France with a tour of Paris. Here, Hitler's train arrives in Paris. Hitler's tour included the Paris opera, the Champs-Elysees, the Arc de Triomphe, and the Eiffel Tower. After visiting Napoleon's tomb and the Sacre Coeur, Hitler left Paris. In all, Hitler spent about three hours in the city. In July, Hitler returned in triumph to Berlin, Germany.
Learn how the "First Letter to all Judges" increased the pressure on German judges to give verdicts and sentences according to Nazi principles and ideology.
The Law for the Imposition and Implementation of the Death Penalty was one of a seri...
Hans Vogel and his family fled Paris following the German invasion. They eventually received papers allowing them to immigrate to the United States. During this time, Hans kept a diary that contains postcards, hand-drawn maps, and other illustrations of their flight. This page describes the lead-up to their departure for the United States, from Lisbon, on the Nyassa. Hans was born in Cologne, Germany on December 3, 1926. The family left Germany in 1936, settling in Paris. They remained there until the…
During the Holocaust, concentration camp prisoners received tattoos only at one location, the...
In the Jewish quarter of Paris, a Jewish woman wearing the compulsory Jewish badge stands at the entrance to a kosher butcher shop. France, between May 1942 and 1944.
Refugees in the Gare de Lyon in Paris during World War I. Paris, France, photograph taken ca. 1914–15.
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