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German troops march into Paris. France, June 1940.
French police check the identity cards of pedestrians during the roundup of Jews on the Boulevard Voltaire (near the Place de la Republique) in Paris, France, August 20, 1941.
Jewish men wearing the mandatory Jewish badge in the Jewish quarter of Paris. France, after June 1942.
Men of the 2nd French Armored Division attack the Chamber of Deputies, one of the last German stongholds, during the battle to liberate the French capital. Paris, France, August 1944.
An only child of middle-class Jewish parents, Liliana was raised in a mixed neighborhood of Christians and Jews in Poland's capital. Her father ran a jewelry business and was a reserve officer in the Polish army; her mother was a housewife. Liliana dreamed of going to the Sorbonne and becoming Poland's second female district attorney. 1933-39: The worst part of going to school was being harassed and called a "filthy Jew." Liliana petitioned to enter a prestigious Catholic high school where she was…
Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.
The Germans and their collaborators used paper records and local knowledge to identify Jews to be rounded up or killed during the Holocaust.
Explore a timeline of key events related to the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, the most notorious and widely distributed antisemitic publication of modern times.
Throughout history Jews have faced prejudice and discrimination, known as antisemitism. Learn more about the long history of antisemitism.
Arlette's Russian-Jewish mother and Romanian-Jewish father had studied medicine together in Paris. After finishing medical school, they married and decided to set up practice in Broncourt, a farming village of 300 inhabitants in northern France. 1933-39: Arlette's father was an old-fashioned doctor who made housecalls, by bicycle at first, then on a motorcycle, and finally, in a car. His patients looked forward to seeing him and held him in high esteem, always offering him coffee and schnapps. Even after…
One of five children, Claude grew up in a Catholic family in Paris. His father, a physician, owned a prosperous general medicine practice and medical laboratory. Claude's father encouraged him to study medicine and to join his practice, but Claude was more interested in becoming a lawyer. 1933-39: Claude continued his studies, and in 1936 he entered the university to study law. By mid-1939, Germany's threat against France had escalated, and on September 3, 1939, France declared war on Germany. Claude knew…
Born to a Jewish family, Willy left Poland at age 20 and emigrated to Palestine. He became active in the workers' organization to end the British mandate there. His activities led to his arrest on May 1, 1931. After serving a two-year prison sentence, Willy was expelled from Palestine. 1933-39: In 1933 Willy left Palestine for Austria, where he joined the ranks of the workers' movement. The economic depression in Austria gave momentum to the movement's cause, and Willy and his friends were closely watched…
Sigmund Freud and daughter Anna in Paris, en route to exile in England. June 1938.
Simone Schloss, a Jewish member of the French resistance, under guard after a German military tribunal in Paris sentenced her to death. She was executed on July 2, 1942. Paris, France, April 14, 1942.
This document from the American Consul-General in Vienna certifies that the Trost family applied for American visas on September 15, 1938. It states that the family (Josef, Alice, Dorrit, and Erika) were placed on the waiting list for visas with the numbers 47291-47294.
The Nazi Party was one of a number of right-wing extremist political groups that emerged in Germany following World War I. Learn about the Nazi rise to power.
Nazi officials implemented the Jewish badge as a key element in their plan to persecute and eventually destroy the Jewish population of Europe. Learn more
Racism, including racial antisemitism (prejudice against or hatred of Jews based on false biological theories), was an integral part of Nazism. Learn more
A group of Jewish men on a train platform with French policemen at the Austerlitz station before deportation to the Pithiviers internment camp. Paris, France, May 1941.
Former Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Amin al-Husayni was an exiled political leader who sought an alliance with the Axis Powers. Learn about his wartime propaganda efforts.
Shortly after taking power in January 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis took control of German newspapers, detailing how the news was to be reported.
Hermann Göring held many positions of power and leadership within the Nazi state. Learn about key dates in the life of Hermann Göring.
Eugenics was a scientific movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Supporters of eugenics claimed that it offered biological solutions to social problems.
The experiences of World War I and its aftermath would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust.
Holocaust survivor Frank Liebermann has a conversation with his teddy bear. Germany, 1933–35. On Frank Liebermann’s first day of school in Gleiwitz, Germany, in 1935, he reported to one of the few small classrooms set aside for Jews. After school, he rushed home to avoid antisemitic attacks. In 1936, it got worse. Anti-Jewish laws now banned Frank from playgrounds and swimming pools. The family decided it was time to leave and applied for US visas. They were lucky. In October 1938, the…
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