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  • Elie Wiesel Timeline and World Events: 1928–1951

    Article

    Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Learn about key events in the world and his life from 1928–1951.

    Elie Wiesel Timeline and World Events: 1928–1951
  • Sandor Alexander Bokshorn

    ID Card

    Sandor grew up in Budapest where his father was a furrier. Sandor attended a Jewish school until he was 14 and then entered a business school run by the chamber of commerce. After he graduated in 1929, he entered his father's business. Sandor then spent a year studying at the Sorbonne in Paris before entering university in Budapest to study economics. 1933-39: As a Jew, Sandor was in the minority at the university because anti-Jewish laws enacted in the 1920s had set quotas that limited Jewish applicants.…

    Sandor Alexander Bokshorn
  • Anti-Jewish Legislation in North Africa

    Article

    The Vichy regime introduced race laws to the North African territories in October of 1940. Learn about the impact of the laws on the region’s Jewish people.

    Anti-Jewish Legislation in North Africa
  • Wartime Fate of the Passengers of the St. Louis

    Article

    In May 1939, the St. Louis set sail from Germany to Cuba. Most of the passengers, fleeing Nazi Germany, were denied entry. Learn more about their fates.

    Wartime Fate of the Passengers of the St. Louis
  • Klaus Mann

    Article

    Klaus Mann was a German author whose novel “Mephisto” exposed the evil of the Nazi dictatorship. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in May 1933. Learn more.

  • France

    Article

    Learn about France during the Holocaust and WWII, the liberation of France, postwar trials, and the legacy of Vichy France’s collaboration with Nazi Germany.

    France
  • Les Milles Camp

    Article

    Under the Vichy regime, the Les Milles camp held foreign Jews before emigration or, in most cases, deportation to German concentration camps and killing centers.

    Tags: camps
    Les Milles Camp
  • Elie Wiesel Timeline and World Events: From 1952

    Article

    Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Explore key events in the world and his life from 1952 until his death in 2016.

    Elie Wiesel Timeline and World Events: From 1952
  • The Vélodrome d'Hiver (Vél d'Hiv) Roundup

    Article

    The Vélodrome d'Hiver (or Vél d'Hiv) roundup was the largest French deportation of Jews during the Holocaust. It took place in Paris on July 16–17, 1942.

    The Vélodrome d'Hiver (Vél d'Hiv) Roundup
  • Paris

    Article

    When the Germans invaded France in May 1940, about 175,000 Jews resided or had found refuge in Paris. Many initially left the city, only to return after the armistice was signed in June and Paris became the seat of the German military administration. The majority of Parisian Jews lived in the 4th, 11th, 18th, and 20th districts. By late September 1940, a German census registered 150,000 Jews in Paris, including 64,000 foreigners. The persecution of Jews in Paris began in October 1941, when the Nazis…

    Paris
  • Josef Nassy

    Article

    A Black expatriate artist living in Belgium upon the outbreak of WWII, Josef Nassy was held in German internment camps during the war. Learn about his experiences.

  • Abdol Hossein Sardari (1895–1981)

    Article

    Iranian diplomat Abdol Hossein Sardari gave critical assistance to Iranian Jews in occupied France (1940-1944) to protect them from Nazi persecution.

  • William L. Shirer

    Article

    American journalist, foreign correspondent, author, and pioneer radio broadcaster William L. Shirer was one of the key observers and chroniclers of the Nazi regime.  

  • Swastika flag rises over Versailles and Paris

    Film

    The German western campaign into the Low Countries and France shattered Allied lines. Within six weeks, Britain evacuated its forces from the Continent and France requested an armistice with Germany. Paris, the French capital, fell to the Germans on June 14, 1940. In this footage, triumphant German forces raise the swastika flag over Versailles and over the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Versailles, the traditional residence of French kings, was deeply symbolic for the Germans: it was the site of both the…

    Swastika flag rises over Versailles and Paris
  • Drancy

    Article

    The Germans established an internment camp at Drancy in August 1941. The following summer, Drancy became the main transit camp for deportations of Jews from France.

    Drancy
  • Elie Wiesel

    Article

    Elie Wiesel was a human rights activist, author, and teacher who reflected on his experience during the Holocaust in more than 40 books. Learn more.

    Elie Wiesel
  • The Nuremberg Race Laws

    Article

    The Nazi regime’s Nuremberg Race Laws of September 1935 made Jews legally different from their non-Jewish neighbors. The laws were the foundation for future antisemitic measures .

    The Nuremberg Race Laws
  • Portrait of Herschel Grynszpan

    Photo

    Portrait of Herschel Grynszpan taken after his arrest by French authorities for the assassination of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath. Grynszpan (1921-1943?). Born in Hannover, Germany, was the son of Polish Jews who had immigrated to Germany. In 1936 Grynszpan fled to Paris. On November 7, 1938, after having learned of the expulsion of his parents from Germany to Zbaszyn the Polish frontier, Grynszpan assassinated Ernst vom Rath, the third secretary of the German embassy in Paris. The diplomat's…

    Portrait of Herschel Grynszpan
  • Deportation of Jews from Paris to Pithiviers

    Photo

    Jewish deportees, guarded by French police, board a train at the Austerlitz station for transport to the Pithiviers internment camp. Paris, France, May 1941.

    Deportation of Jews from Paris to Pithiviers
  • The "Night of Broken Glass"

    Article

    On November 9–10, 1938, the Nazi regime coordinated a wave of antisemitic violence in Nazi Germany. This became known as Kristallnacht or the "Night of Broken Glass."

    The "Night of Broken Glass"
  • Lucie Kupefer Munzer

    ID Card

    Lucie was born to Jewish parents living in Gera, a medieval German city on the banks of the Elster River in the Thuringer Forest. Gera was well known for its manufacture of Leica cameras, for its publishing houses, and for the extensive collection of Gobelin tapestries in one of its museums. 1933-39: A few weeks ago, Lucie married Hans Munzer here, in Paris. Hans fled Germany last year because the Nazis began rounding up and imprisoning socialists, and as a district supervisor for the Social Democratic…

    Lucie Kupefer Munzer
  • Rosalia Wourgaft Schatz

    ID Card

    Rosalia was raised by Jewish parents in the small, predominantly Jewish industrial city of Tulchin in southwestern Ukraine. She married Aaron Schatz, and together they raised four children in the city of Odessa. In 1919, when her family was grown, Rosalia and her daughter Ludmilla immigrated via Romania to France after Aaron was killed during the Russian civil war. 1933-39: Rosalia settled in Bagneux, a suburb of Paris. She spoke only Russian and Yiddish and found Paris to be a different world from the…

    Rosalia Wourgaft Schatz
  • Karl Marx

    Article

    Karl Marx was a political theorist and philosopher. He published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.

    Karl Marx
  • HIAS

    Article

    Since its founding, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) relief organization has assisted refugees fleeing persecution. Learn about its work during WWII and the Holocaust.

    HIAS
  • Armed Jewish Resistance: Partisans

    Article

    Facing overwhelming odds, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners.

    Armed Jewish Resistance: Partisans
  • Samuel Zoltan

    ID Card

    Samuel's parents immigrated to Palestine when he was very young. They lived in Rishon le Zion, the first settlement in Palestine founded by Jews from outside of Palestine. After graduating from high school, Samuel became active in a movement challenging the British mandate in Palestine. 1933-39: Samuel was expelled from Palestine in 1936 because of his outspoken criticism of the British mandate. He went to France and then to Spain just after the civil war began. Samuel fought for three years with the…

    Samuel Zoltan
  • Jewish lawyers line up to apply for permission to appear before the Berlin courts

    Photo

    Jewish lawyers line up to apply for permission to appear before the Berlin courts. New regulations set forth in the Aryan Paragraph (a series of laws enacted in April 1933 to purge Jews from various spheres of state and society) allowed only 35 to appear before the court. Berlin, Germany, April 11, 1933.

    Jewish lawyers line up to apply for permission to appear before the Berlin courts
  • Gabrielle Weidner

    ID Card

    Gabrielle was the second of four children born to Dutch parents. Her father was a minister in the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. She grew up in Collonges, France, near the Swiss border, where her father served as a pastor. Gabrielle was baptized in the Seventh-Day Adventist faith at the age of 16. She attended secondary school in London, England. 1933-39: Gabrielle became increasingly active in the Seventh-Day Adventist Church, eventually becoming the secretary at the French-Belgian Union of Seventh-Day…

    Gabrielle Weidner
  • Israel Cendorf

    ID Card

    Israel was born into a religious Hasidic family who hoped he would become a rabbi. But Israel rebelled and apprenticed himself to a printer when he was 16. He read constantly, deepening his sympathy with the workers' struggle, and he soon began to write his own revolutionary songs. His first book of poems, The Red Agenda, was warmly received. 1933-39: In 1933, the year Hitler became chancellor of Germany, Israel moved to Paris. But the city was wracked by unemployment, and Jewish immigrants were in…

    Israel Cendorf
  • The United States and the Refugee Crisis, 1938–41

    Article

    Nazi Germany’s territorial expansion and the radicalization of Nazi anti-Jewish policies triggered a mass exodus. Learn about the US and the refugee crisis of 1938–41.

    The United States and the Refugee Crisis, 1938–41
  • American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and Refugee Aid

    Article

    A relief organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC or Joint) was established in 1914. Learn about its activities before, during, and after WWII.

    American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and Refugee Aid
  • Alfred Dreyfus and the "Dreyfus Affair"

    Article

    Jewish military officer Alfred Dreyfus was wrongfully convicted of treason against France in 1894. The trial and ensuing events are known as the “Dreyfus Affair.” Learn more.

    Alfred Dreyfus and the "Dreyfus Affair"
  • Drancy Camp Established

    Timeline Event

    August 20, 1941. On this date, German authorities opened the Drancy internment and transit camp in France.

    Drancy Camp Established
  • Georg Bernhard

    Article

    Georg Bernhard was a prominent financial columnist. The Nazis declared that German journalism must be "cleansed" of Jews. Bernhard’s work was burned in 1933.

    Georg Bernhard
  • Zalie Waldhorn

    ID Card

    Zalie was the second of three children born to immigrant Jewish parents. Her Polish-born father was a former officer in the Austro-Hungarian army who had met and married her Hungarian-born mother during World War I. Shortly before Zalie was born, her parents settled in Paris. There, Zalie and her brother and sister grew up in a religious household. 1933-39: Zalie's mother said it was better in Paris than in the poor village in which she grew up. Her mother spoke broken French, but Zalie grew up speaking…

    Zalie Waldhorn
  • Voyage of the Struma

    Article

    Learn about the voyage and sinking of the Struma, an overcrowded and unsafe vessel carrying Jews attempting to leave Europe for Palestine in 1941-42.

    Voyage of the Struma
  • Immigration to the United States 1933–41

    Article

    Potential immigrants to the US from Nazi-occupied territory faced many obstacles, including restrictive quotas and complicated requirements for obtaining visas.

    Immigration to the United States 1933–41
  • Michael von Hoppen Waldhorn

    ID Card

    Michael was born in a village in the southeastern part of Galicia, an Austrian province before it became a part of Poland in 1918. Raised by Jewish parents, Michael served as an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army until the end of World War I. After the war, Michael and his Hungarian-Jewish wife settled in Paris, where he became known as Michel. They raised three children there. 1933-39: Michael's family was better off in Paris than they had been in eastern Europe. In Paris, Michael was a successful…

    Michael von Hoppen Waldhorn
  • The Holocaust and World War II: Key Dates

    Article

    Read a detailed timeline of the Holocaust and World War II. Learn about key dates and events from 1933-45 as Nazi antisemitic policies became more radical.

    The Holocaust and World War II: Key Dates
  • Hitler and Speer in Paris

    Photo

    Adolf Hitler and his personal architect, Albert Speer, in Paris shortly after the fall of France. Paris, France, June 23, 1940.

    Hitler and Speer in Paris
  • 1930s street scene in the Jewish quarter of Paris

    Photo

    Street scene in the Jewish quarter of Paris before World War II and the Holocaust. Paris, France, 1933–39.

    1930s street scene in the Jewish quarter of Paris
  • 1938: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of Nazi Germany during 1938.

    1938: Key Dates
  • Gurs

    Article

    The Gurs camp was one of the first and largest camps established in prewar France. It was located at the foot of the Pyrenees in southwestern France, just to the south of the village of Gurs. The camp, about 50 miles from the Spanish border, was situated in the foothills of the Pyrenees Mountains northwest of Oloron-Sainte-Marie. The French government established the Gurs camp in April 1939, before war with Germany and well before the occupation of France in June 1940. Originally, Gurs served as a…

    Tags: Gurs camps France
    Gurs
  • The Biological State: Nazi Racial Hygiene, 1933–1939

    Article

    Nazism was “applied biology,” stated Hitler deputy Rudolf Hess. During the Third Reich, a politically extreme, antisemitic variation of eugenics determined the course of state policy. Hitler’s regime touted the “Nordic race” as its eugenic ideal and attempted to mold Germany into a cohesive national community that excluded anyone deemed hereditarily “less valuable” or “racially foreign.” Public health measures to control reproduction and marriage aimed at strengthening the “national…

    The Biological State: Nazi Racial Hygiene, 1933–1939
  • 1935: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1935.

    Tags: key dates
    1935: Key Dates
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Article

    Learn about the provisions and impact of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, including the "War Guilt Clause" which held Germany responsible for starting World War I.

    Tags: World War I
    Treaty of Versailles
  • The Nazi Camp System: Terminology

    Article

    What is the difference between a “concentration camp” and a “killing center”? Learn about the history of these terms and what they meant in the context of Nazi oppression and murder.

    The Nazi Camp System: Terminology
  • Margit Morawetz

    ID Card

    When Margit was a baby, her family moved from Austria to Prague, Czechoslovakia. Her father was a banker from a religious Jewish family in Bohemia and her mother came from a Viennese family of Jewish origin. Margit knew many languages: Czech, French, English and German, which she spoke with her family. 1933-39: In 1938, when Margit was 16, attacks on Jews in central Europe escalated and her parents decided she should leave. She left secondary school in Prague and went to Paris, where she studied…

    Tags: Paris France
    Margit Morawetz
  • World War II in Europe

    Article

    World War II in Europe During World War II, Germany overran much of Europe using a new tactic called the "Blitzkrieg" (lightning war). Blitzkrieg involved the massing of planes, tanks, and artillery. These forces would break through enemy defenses along a narrow front. Air power prevented the enemy from closing the breach. German forces encircled opposing troops, forcing them to surrender. Using the Blitzkrieg tactic, Germany defeated Poland (attacked in September 1939), Denmark (April 1940), Norway…

    Tags: World War II
    World War II in Europe
  • Wolfgang Munzer

    ID Card

    An only child, Wolfgang was born in Berlin to Jewish parents. His father was the foreign representative for a sewing notions company. The family lived in a comfortable apartment in the southwestern district of the city. Wolfgang attended secondary school there and hoped to become an electrical engineer. 1933-39: When the Nazis came to power, Wolfgang's father fled Germany because he was a socialist and was afraid he'd be arrested. Wolfgang's mother was very ill, so his grandmother took care of him until…

    Wolfgang Munzer

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