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  • Children during the Holocaust

    Series

    Children were especially vulnerable to Nazi persecution. Explore a series of articles about the plight of children during the Holocaust, including experiences in hiding.

    Children during the Holocaust
  • Ghettos

    Series

    The creation of ghettos was a key step in the Nazi process of brutally separating, persecuting, and ultimately destroying Europe's Jews during the Holocaust. Learn more.

  • Deadly Medicine

    Series

    From 1933 to 1945, Nazi Germany carried out a campaign to "cleanse" German society of individuals viewed as biological threats to the nation's "health." Learn more

  • Roma (Gypsies)

    Series

    Series of articles about the history of discrimination against Roma in Europe and how the Nazi regime committed genocide against European Roma during WWII.

  • World War I

    Series

    The trauma of WWI would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of both leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust. Learn more about the war and its aftermath.

  • Jewish Community of Monastir

    Series

    Explore a rare photograph collection capturing a view of the Sephardic Jewish community of Monastir on the eve of its destruction during the Holocaust.

    Jewish Community of Monastir
  • 1936 Olympics

    Series

    Explore key themes about the Olympic Games held in Berlin in 1936, inluding debates over participation in the Games, the choices facing African American athletes, and the role of Nazi propaganda.

    1936 Olympics
  • Killing Centers

    Series

    To carry out the "Final Solution," the Nazis established killing centers in German-annexed and occupied Poland. Learn more about these killing centers, also referred to as extermination camps or death camps.

  • Soviet Prisoners of War

    Series

    The Nazis perpetrated mass murder against groups considered to be racial, civilizational, or ideological enemies. This included Soviet prisoners of war. Learn more

  • Holocaust Denial

    Series

    Holocaust denial is any attempt to negate the established facts of the Nazi genocide of European Jews. Explore the articles in this series to learn about Holocaust denial and its origins.

    Holocaust Denial
  • International Military Tribunal

    Series

    Browse a series of articles about the establishment of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg and the larger context of postwar trials.

  • Antisemitism

    Series

    Learn about the history and causes of antisemitism (hatred of Jews) and its role in Nazi ideology.

    Antisemitism
  • Nazi Rule

    Series

    The Nazis took control of the police and turned Germany into a dictatorship; implemented a racist ideology; and carried out brutal policies across annexed and occupied Europe. Learn more.

  • Jews in Prewar Germany

    Series

    Learn about Jewish life in Germany and Europe before WWII, antisemitic laws, and Nazi violence and discrimination against the Jews of Germany.

  • The "Final Solution"

    Series

    The Nazi “Final Solution to the Jewish Question” was the deliberate, planned mass murder of European Jews. Learn more about how the Nazis implemented the "Final Solution."

  • Nazi Camp System

    Series

    Learn about the history of the Nazi camp system, the different types of camps, who was imprisoned and why, and conditions in the camps.

  • Rescue and Resistance

    Series

    Browse a series of articles describing how some Jews survived the Holocaust; rescue efforts; anti-Nazi resistance groups; and revolts against Nazi oppression in the Warsaw ghetto and in killing centers.

  • Righteous Among the Nations

    Series

    Learn about some of the Righteous Among the Nations, non-Jewish individuals who have been honored by Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial, for risking their lives to aid Jews during the Holocaust.

  • Life after the Holocaust: Audio Interviews with Holocaust Survivors

    Series

    Learn about the experiences of 6 Holocaust survivors whose journeys brought them to the United States: Thomas Buergenthal, Aron and Lisa Derman, Regina Gelb, Blanka Rothschild, and Norman Salsitz.

  • Resistance in the Smaller Ghettos of Eastern Europe

    Series

    Learn more about resistance in some of the smaller ghettos of eastern Europe in the face of overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios.

  • Law, Justice, and the Holocaust

    Series

    With decrees, legislative acts, and case law, Nazi leadership gradually moved Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship. Learn more about law and justice in the Third Reich.

    Law, Justice, and the Holocaust
  • Liberation of Nazi Camps: Encountering and Documenting Atrocities

    Series

    As Allied troops moved across Europe against Nazi Germany in 1944 and 1945, they encountered concentration camps, mass graves, and other sites of Nazi crimes. Learn more

    Liberation of Nazi Camps: Encountering and Documenting Atrocities
  • After the Holocaust

    Series

    Explore key themes related to the end of the Holocaust, including liberation, challenges facing survivors, displaced persons camps, and postwar justice.

    After the Holocaust
  • The Holocaust

    Series

    Explore key themes, concepts, and topics related to the history of the Holocaust. Learn about the Nazi persecution of Jews and the implementation of the "Final Solution."  

    The Holocaust
  • Rescue and Resistance during the Holocaust

    Series

    Despite the inaction of most Europeans and the collaboration of many in the persecution and murder of Jews, some individuals and networks from all social and religious backgrounds aided Jews. Learn more.

  • The Third Reich

    Series

    The Nazi rise to power marked the beginning of the Third Reich. Learn more about the Nazi state from its suspension of basic civil rights to the implementation of mass murder.

  • Women during the Holocaust

    Series

    Explore a series of articles about the experiences of women during the Holocaust.

  • Women during the Holocaust: Individual Stories

    Series

    Explore some oral history testimony excerpts describing the experiences of women during the Holocaust.

  • Women's Artifacts

    Series

    Examine artifacts such as clothing and letters and explore the experiences of women during the Holocaust.

  • American Women and the Holocaust

    Series

    Learn about American women spanning a wide range of roles and activities or experiences during the Holocaust, from First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to US Army nurse Pat Lynch.

  • Women in the Third Reich

    Series

    Explore a series of articles about the role of German women in the Nazi movement.

  • St. Louis

    Series

    Explore articles about the voyage of the German transatlantic liner St. Louis in May-June 1939. Most of the ship's passengers were Jews fleeing Nazi Germany.

  • Diaries

    Series

    Explore a series of articles about diaries and journals kept during the Holocaust. Each diary reflects a fragment of its author's life.

  • German police

    Series

    Germany’s policemen played a key role in the consolidation of Nazi power. During WWII, their role became radicalized. Learn about police in Germany before and after the Nazi rise to power.

    German police
  • The Role of German Professionals and Civil Leaders

    Series

    During the Holocaust, Nazi leaders required the active help or cooperation of professionals ranging from civil servants, lawyers, doctors, teachers, police, members of the military, business elites, to church leaders. Learn more.

  • International Military Tribunal: Defendants

    Series

    In October 1945, the chief prosecutors of the International Military Trial brought charges against 24 leading German officials. Learn more about who was put on trial.

  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings

    Series

    The Subsequent Nuremberg Trials were proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others. American military tribunals in Nuremberg, Germany, presided over the 12 trials, held between December 1946 and Apri...

  • Young Diarists from the Lodz Ghetto

    Series

    The Jewish children of Lodz suffered unfolding harsh realities after the German invasion of Poland. Some of them, including Dawid Sierakowiak, recorded their experiences in diaries.

  • Displaced Persons Camps

    Series

    Learn more about what life was like for Holocaust survivors living in DP camps after WWII. This series focuses on DP camps in the US zone of Allied-occupied Germany.

  • German Military and the Holocaust

    Series

    Browse a series of articles about the role of the German military and some of its leaders during the Holocaust and World War II. 

  • Anne Frank

    Series

    Series of resources about Anne Frank and about the experiences of children during the Holocaust. 

  • Book Burning

    Series

    Browse a series of articles about the 1933 book burnings in Nazi Germany, including information about the works burned and the symbolism of the book burnings. 

  • The Weimar Republic

    Series

    Series of articles on the Weimar Republic (1918–1933), a liberal democratic republic founded in Germany in the aftermath of World War I.

  • Gay Men and Lesbians under the Nazi Regime

    Series

    The Nazi regime harrassed and targeted gay men and lesbians. For gay men, this harassment turned into brutal persecution. Browse these articles to learn more.

  • The United States and the Holocaust

    Series

    How did the United States respond to the rise of the Nazis in 1930s Germany? What did the US government know about the Nazi persecution of Jews and the “Final Solution”? Learn more

  • Experiences of Black People during the Holocaust and World War II

    Series

    Learn about the experiences of Black people during the Holocaust and WWII, including persecution in Nazi Germany, the impact of Nazi ideology, the impact of racism on African American athletes, and the experiences of Black American soldiers.

    Experiences of Black People during the Holocaust and World War II
  • Martha and Waitstill Sharp

    Article

    Martha and Waitstill Sharp, American Unitarian aide workers, helped thousands of Jews, intellectuals, and children in Prague, Lisbon, and southern France in 1939–1940.

    Martha and Waitstill Sharp
  • Oskar Schindler

    Article

    Oskar Schindler's actions to protect Jews during the Holocaust saved over 1,000 Jews from deportation. Learn more about Schindler's List.

    Oskar Schindler
  • The Syrets Labor Education Camp

    Article

    Syrets was a labor education camp established by the Germans outside of Kyiv. Learn more about Syrets prisoners and their daily life in the camp.

  • The History of the Swastika

    Article

    The swastika is an ancient symbol that was in use in many different cultures for many years before Adolf Hitler made it the centerpiece of the Nazi flag.

    The History of the Swastika

Thank you for supporting our work

We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies, Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation, the Claims Conference, EVZ, and BMF for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of donor acknowledgement.