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  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt

    Article

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States (1933–1945). He faced immense domestic and international challenges, struggling to restore an economy shattered by the Great Depression, respond to the worldwide threat of fascism and an international refugee crisis, move the nation from isolation to victory in a global war, and prepare the United States as a leader in the postwar world. 

     

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Postwar Trials

    Article

    After World War II, international, domestic, and military courts conducted trials of tens of thousands of accused war criminals. Efforts to bring to justice to the perpetrators of Nazi-era crimes continue well into the 21st century. Unfortunately, most perpetrators have never been tried or punished. Nevertheless, the postwar trials did set important legal precedents. Today, international and domestic tribunals seek to uphold the principle that those who commit wartime atrocities should be brought to justice.

    Postwar Trials
  • Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)

    Article

    The Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) was a new agency created by Heinrich Himmler in September 1939, shortly after the German invasion of Poland. The office formalized the relationship between the SS intelligence service (SD) and the Security Police, which consisted of the Kripo (Criminal Police) and Gestapo. The RSHA was an ideologically radical and brutal institution responsible for coordinating and perpetrating many aspects of the Holocaust.

    Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)
  • How Were the Crimes Defined?

    Article

    After World War II, the victorious Allies took the unprecedented step of creating an International Military Tribunal (IMT) to hold German leaders individually accountable for violations of international law. The Nuremberg tribunal laid the foundation for a new system of international criminal law and accountability that continues developing today.

    How Were the Crimes Defined?
  • International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg

    Article

    The trial of leading German officials before the International Military Tribunal (IMT) is the best known war crimes trial held after World War II. It formally opened in Nuremberg, Germany, on November 20, 1945, just six and a half months after Germany surrendered. Each of the four major Allied nations—the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and France—supplied a judge and a prosecution team.

    International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg
  • The Nazi Kripo (Criminal Police)

    Article

    The Nazi Kripo, or Criminal Police, was the detective force of Nazi Germany. They were responsible for investigating crimes such as theft and murder. During the Nazi regime and World War II, they became a key enforcer of policies based in Nazi ideology. The Kripo helped persecute and murder Jews and Roma. They also conducted the widespread arrest and imprisonment in concentration camps of people whom the Nazi regime categorized as asocials, professional criminals, and homosexuals. 

  • Belzec

    Article

    To carry out the mass murder of Europe's Jews, the SS established killing centers devoted exclusively or primarily to the destruction of human beings in gas chambers. Belzec was among these killing centers. It was one of three killing centers linked to Operation Reinhard, the SS plan to murder almost two million Jews living in the German-administered territory of occupied Poland called the General Government.

    Belzec
  • SS and Police

    Article

    Combining the SS and the police into one institution was an important step in the Nazi regime’s transformation into a powerful dictatorship. This SS and police system had the ideological radicalism of the SS and the executive authority of the police. During World War II, SS and police leaders were responsible for perpetrating the mass murder of Europe’s Jews.

  • Hitler Youth

    Article

    The Nazi Party tried to extend its influence over all aspects of German society. The Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls were developed as Nazi Party youth groups to introduce children and juveniles to Nazi ideology and policy. These youth groups also prepared Germany’s young people for war.

    Hitler Youth
  • Evidence from the Holocaust at the First Nuremberg Trial

    Article

    The goals of the International Military Tribunal (IMT) went beyond verdict and punishment. The creators of the IMT deliberately assembled a public record of the horrific crimes committed by Germans during World War II, including those of the Holocaust.

    Evidence from the Holocaust at the First Nuremberg Trial

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