A member of the Zoska battalion of the Armia Krajowa escorts two of 348 Jews liberated from the Gęsiówka concentration camp during the Warsaw Polish uprising. August 5, 1944.
A group of children assembled for deportation to Chelmno. During the roundup known as the "Gehsperre" Aktion, the elderly, infirm, and children were rounded up for deportation. Lodz, Poland, September 5-12, 1942.
A survivor in Wöbbelin. The soldier in the foreground of the photograph wears the insignia of the 8th Infantry Division. Along with the 82nd Airborne Division, on May 2, 1945, the 8th Infantry Division encountered the Wöbbelin camp. Germany, May 4-5, 1945.
A US Army soldier views the cemetery at Hadamar, where victims of the Nazi euthanasia program were buried in mass graves. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.
Sergeant Alexander Drabik, the first American soldier to cross the bridge at Remagen, receiving the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroism. April 5, 1945. US Army Signal Corps photograph taken by J Malan Heslop.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower visits with paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division just hours before their jump into German-occupied France (D-Day). June 5, 1944.
Soviet and Polish prisoners with disabilities stand in front of a tank of the 11th Armored Division, US Third Army. This photograph was taken at the Mauthausen concentration camp immediately after liberation. Austria, May 5–7, 1945.
The Theresienstadt camp-ghetto existed from 1941 to 1945. Learn about its final weeks, liberation, and the postwar trials of SS commandants and other staff.
The 11th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Mauthausen and Gusen in 1945.
Four days after the outbreak of World War II, Secretary of State Cordell Hull signs the Neutrality Proclamation (first signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt) at the State Department. Washington, DC, United States, September 5, 1939.
Some of the nursing staff of the "euthanasia" clinic at Hadamar stand outside of the institution after the arrival of US forces, April 5, 1945. Irmgard Huber, the head nurse of the clinic, is probably the person standing fifth from the right. © IWM EA 62183
Policemen stand outside the shuttered Eldorado nightclub, long frequented by Berlin's gay and lesbian community. The Nazi government quickly closed the establishment down and pasted pro-Nazi election posters on the building. Berlin, Germany, March 5, 1933. Learn more about this photograph.
View of the wall surrounding the cemetery of the Hadamar euthanasia killing center. Jagged pieces of glass were placed on the wall to discourage observers. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation of Hadamar. Germany, April 5, 1945.
German children read an anti-Jewish propaganda book for children titled Der Giftpilz (The Poisonous Mushroom). The girl on the left holds a companion volume, the translated title of which is "Trust No Fox." Germany, ca. 1938. (Source record ID: E39 Nr .2381/5)
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Heidenheim DP camp.
Shony was born to religious Jewish parents in a small Transylvanian city. He began to learn the violin at age 5. His town was occupied by Hungary in 1940 and by Germany in 1944. In May 1944, he was deported to the Auschwitz camp in Poland. He was transferred to the Natzweiler camp system in France and then to Dachau, where he was liberated by US troops in April 1945. In 1950, he immigrated to the United States, and became a composer and a professional violinist.
Learn about the establishment and history of the Dachau subcamp München-Schwabing, and the role of Eleonore Baur (also known as Schwester Pia or Sister Pia).
The Mir ghetto was established in Mir, Poland in 1941. Learn more about life and resistance in the ghetto.
Börgermoor was part of the Nazi regime’s early system of concentration camps. It was located in the Emsland region of Prussia.
One of six children, Yosel was raised in a religious Jewish family in Lodz, an industrial city in western Poland. His father was a businessman. At the age of 6, Yosel began attending a Jewish day school. His two older sisters attended public school in the morning and religious school in the afternoon. Yosel spent much of his free time playing soccer with his brothers. 1933-39: Yosel's family lived in a modest house in the northern section of Lodz. He went to a Jewish day school and had many friends there.…
Chaim's family came from a small town where his father owned a textile store. When antisemitic pogroms broke out in Brudzew, the Engels moved to the industrial city of Lodz. Chaim was then 5 years old. In Lodz he attended a Jewish school that also provided a secular education. After finishing middle school, Chaim went to work at his uncle's textile factory. 1933-39: Chaim's neighborhood in Lodz was predominantly Jewish, so most of his friends were Jews. As a young adult he began his compulsory army…
Peter and his twin brother, Thomas, were the youngest of three children born to an observant Jewish family. They lived in Pecs, an industrial center where goods such as bricks and ceramics were produced. Peter's father owned a prosperous business selling accessories and parts for cars, motorcycles and bicycles. He was also a regional sales representative for Ford automobiles. 1933-39: A German nanny took care of Peter, Thomas, and their older sister. She taught them German and they became quite fluent.…
The younger of two children born to Jewish parents, Rachela grew up in Radom, an industrial town located some 60 miles south of Warsaw. One-quarter of the city's 100,000 prewar population was Jewish. Rachela's father was a Zionist and was active in municipal affairs. Her mother did volunteer work. l933-39: Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. On September 5, with the Germans rapidly advancing, Rachela's family sought temporary safety with relatives in Warsaw. They got separated along the way.…
Learn about the role of the legal profession as the Nazi leadership gradually moved Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship.
Learn more about the Holocaust Encyclopedia’s key terms and individuals in the Nazi judicial system.
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