Adolf Hitler salutes the Olympic flag at the opening of the Olympic Games in Berlin. Germany, August 1, 1936.
The Reichstag (German parliament) building burns in Berlin. Hitler used the event to convince President Hindenburg to declare a state of emergency, suspending important constitutional safeguards. Germany, February 27, 1933.
At Berlin's Opernplatz (Opera Square), an SA man throws books into the flames at the public burning of books deemed "un-German." This image is a still from a motion picture. Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.
Public burning of "un-German" books in the Opernplatz (Opera Square). Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.
At Berlin's Opernplatz, crowds of German students and members of the SA gather for the burning of books deemed "un-German." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.
View of the Olympic Stadium, centerpiece of Berlin's Reich Sports Field. Berlin, Germany, 1936. The Nazis made elaborate preparations for the August 1–16 Summer Olympic Games. A huge sports complex was constructed, including the new stadium and state-of-the art Olympic village for housing the athletes. Olympic flags and swastikas bedecked the monuments and houses of a festive, crowded Berlin. Most tourists were unaware that the Nazi regime had temporarily removed anti-Jewish signs, nor would…
[This video is silent] Olympic athlete Jesse Owens won four medals at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany: 100-meter dash, gold200-meter dash, goldBroad (long) jump, gold4x100-meter relay, gold This footage shows Owens winning the 100-meter dash in a time of 10.3 seconds. Owens was one of the 18 African Americans (16 men and 2 women) who competed in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. These athletes brought home 14 medals: 8 gold; 4 silver; and 2 bronze.
Jewish lawyers line up to apply for permission to appear before the Berlin courts. New regulations set forth in the Aryan Paragraph (a series of laws enacted in April 1933 to purge Jews from various spheres of state and society) allowed only 35 to appear before the court. Berlin, Germany, April 11, 1933.
Exhibition of Nazi publications—carefully purged of antisemitic titles—on display during the Berlin Olympics. The poster shows countries in which Hitler's Mein Kampf had been translated into the native language. Berlin, Germany, August 1936.
Crowds gather at Berlin's Opernplatz (opera square) for the burning of books deemed "un-German." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.
Books and writings deemed "un-German" are burned at the Opernplatz (Opera Square). Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.
An interior view of the Sephardic synagogue on Luetzowstrasse. Berlin, Germany, before November 1938.
Before 1942, Nazi Germany had expanded across much of Europe. Learn more about major Allied victories in eastern Europe that led to the German surrender.
A public demonstration is held on the Unter den Linden in Berlin on November 9, 1918. On this day, Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the throne after a recent naval mutiny in Kiel inspired widespread revolution. © IWM Q 88164
In 1963, the German Democratic Republic (DDR) issued this postage stamp to commemorate the Treblinka killing center. This was the first stamp of a series issued annually by the DDR under the name Mahn- und Gedensksatte (Remembrance and Memorial Center) in remembrance and commemoration.
The RuSHA Case was Case #8 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
The Nazis opened the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp in 1941. Learn more about the camp, its prisoners, and forced labor and medical experiments.
Learn about the Flossenbürg camp from its establishment until liberation in April 1945, including conditions, forced labor, subcamps, and death marches.
Learn about African Americans' experiences in Nazi Germany before and during World War II.
The Nuremberg Special Court ruled on the Katzenberger Race Defilement Case in 1942. Learn more about the outcome and impact of the case.
This film excerpt from Groß-Stadt Zigeuner (1932) by filmmaker László Moholy-Nagy shows a Romani (Gypsy) campsite near Berlin, Germany, in the last year of the Weimar Republic. Although Roma (Gypsies) had faced persecution in Germany even before the Nazi rise to power in 1933, the Nazis regarded them as racial enemies to be identified and killed. Tens of thousands of Roma were killed by the Einsatzgruppen in eastern Europe or were deported to killing centers in occupied Poland.
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