November 9, 1923. On this date, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party attempted to overthrow the Weimar Republic.
December 2, 1938. On this date, the first Kindertransport of German Jewish children arrived in Great Britain.
November 8, 1937. On this date, Josef Goebbels and Julius Streitcher open an antisemitic exhibit named "Der Ewige Jude."
July 20, 1944. On this date, Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg and other military officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler.
Erich Frost (1900–87), a musician and devout Jehovah's Witness, was active in the religious resistance to Hitler's authority. Caught smuggling pamphlets from Switzerland to Germany, he was imprisoned in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp near Berlin where he composed this song in 1942. Later deported to a labor camp at Alderney, Channel Islands, Frost survived the war and returned to Germany to serve the Watchtower Society. "Fest steht," reworked in English as "Forward, You Witnesses," is among the…
Learn about the experiences of Black people during the Holocaust and WWII, including persecution in Nazi Germany, the impact of Nazi ideology, the impact of racism on African American athletes, and the experiences of Black American soldiers.
At the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, a racial hygienist measures a woman's features in an attempt to determine her racial ancestry. Berlin, Germany, date uncertain.
On the day of the vote on the so-called Enabling Act, the Nazi leadership sent SS troops into the makeshift Reichstag building, formerly the Kroll Opera, to intimidate other political parties. Berlin, Germany, March 23, 1933. The Enabling Act allowed the Reich government to issue laws without the consent of Germany’s parliament, laying the foundation for the complete Nazification of German society. The full name of the law was the “Law to Remedy the Distress of the People and the Reich.”
African American athletes Jesse Owens and Dave Albritton pose with a German citizen. They both competed in the 1936 Olympic Games. Albritton won the silver medal in high jump. Owens won gold medals in the 100-meter dash, 200-meter dash, broad (long) jump, and the 4x100-meter relay.
Anna Gutman (Boros) (seated, center), her daughter, and son-in-law visit Dr. Mohamed Helmy (seated, left) and his wife, Emmi (seated, right), in Berlin in 1980. Dr. Helmy hid Gutman in his home for the duration of World War II.
A group of young German boys view Der Stuermer, Die Woche, and other propaganda posters that are posted on a fence in Berlin, Germany, 1937.
A crowd stands outside of a polling center in Berlin during the German national election in January 1919. This was the first election held under the Weimar Republic (1918–1933), as well as the first election in which women had the legal right to vote in Germany. Women's suffrage was declared in Germany only a couple of months earlier, on November 12, 1918. © IWM Q 110868
A pedestrian reads a notice announcing an upcoming public meeting, scheduled for Tuesday, December 3, to urge Americans to boycott the upcoming 1936 Berlin Olympics. New York, United States, 1935.
Two German Jewish refugee women stand behind the counter of the Elite Provision Store (delicatessen) in Shanghai. Pictured on the left is the owner, Gerda Harpuder; on the right is her cousin Kate Benjamin. In 1939 Hans and Gerda Harpuder sold their crystal, silver, and other family possessions shipped from Berlin in order to open a grocery store in Hongkew at 737 East Broadway.
Portrait of Robert T. Odeman, author and actor who was imprisoned in 1937 for 27 months for homosexuality. In 1942, he was deported to Sachsenhausen concentration camp where he was a prisoner for three years. Berlin, Germany, before 1937.
During the anti-Jewish boycott, SA men carry banners which read "Germans! Defend Yourselves! Do Not Buy From Jews!" Berlin, Germany, March or April 1933.
Police search a messenger at the entrance to the building where Vorwaerts, a Social-Democratic Party newspaper, was published. The building was subsequently occupied during the suppression of the political left wing in Germany that was carried out in response to the Reichstag Fire. Berlin, Germany, March 3–4, 1933.
Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi minister of propaganda, speaks at a rally in favor of the boycott of Jewish-owned shops. Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.
Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels (at podium) praises students and members of the SA for their efforts to destroy books deemed "un-German" during the book burning at Berlin's Opernplatz (opera square). Germany, May 10, 1933.
Author Lion Feuchtwanger in New York, November 17, 1932. Feuchtwanger's 1930 novel Erfolg (Success) provided a thinly veiled criticism of the Beer Hall Putsch and Hitler's rise to leadership in the Nazi Party. He was targeted by the Nazis. After the Nazi takeover on January 30, 1933, his house in Berlin was illegally searched and his library was plundered during his lecture tour in the United States.
On the day of his appointment as German chancellor, Adolf Hitler greets a crowd of enthusiastic Germans from a window in the Chancellery building. Berlin, Germany, January 30, 1933.
Adolf Hitler (hand on rail) with Hermann Göring (second to left of Hitler) and Joseph Goebbels (third to left of Hitler) at the site of the fire that damaged the Reichstag (German parliament) building. Berlin, Germany, February 1933.
In the auditorium of the Propaganda Ministry and Public Enlightenment, Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels delivers a speech to his deputies for the press and arts. Berlin, Germany, November 1936.
Display from "Der ewige Jude" (The Eternal Jew), a Nazi antisemitic exhibit which claimed that Jews heavily dominated the German performing arts. A phrase at the top of the display states "Shameless Entertainment." Berlin, Germany, November 11, 1938.
A couple dances at the Eldorado, a nightclub frequented by members of Berlin's gay and lesbian community. The nightclub, along with other similar establishments, was closed by the Nazi government in the spring of 1933. Photograph taken in Berlin, Germany, 1929. Learn more about the Eldorado.
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