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  • Abraham Soep

    ID Card

    Abraham, known as "Bram," was born to a religious Jewish family in Amsterdam. After graduating from high school, Bram went into the diamond business with his father. By 1924 he and his wife, Tonie, had three children. Bram served as president of the Amsterdam Jewish community. 1933-39: The Soeps had a large and comfortable home. Bram and his wife often traveled abroad, and each summer the family rented a home near the seashore in Zandvoort. In 1937 Bram's son Benno joined him in the diamond…

    Abraham Soep
  • Hodonín U Kunštátu (Hodonín bei Kunstadt) (Roma camp)


    In March 1942, the Hodonin camp was classified as a camp for Roma. It was a transfer station during deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Learn about the camp and its history.

  • Heinrich Himmler: Key Dates


    Heinrich Himmler was the leader of the dreaded SS of the Nazi Party from 1929 until 1945. Learn more about key dates in the life of Heinrich Himmler.

    Heinrich Himmler: Key Dates
  • Silvio Ortona


    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Silvio Ortona.

    Silvio Ortona
  • Axis Powers in World War II


    The three principal partners in the Axis alliance were Germany, Italy, and Japan. Learn more about the Axis powers in WW2.

    Axis Powers in World War II
  • Abdol Hossein Sardari (1895–1981)


    Iranian diplomat Abdol Hossein Sardari gave critical assistance to Iranian Jews in occupied France (1940-1944) to protect them from Nazi persecution.

  • Voyage of the St. Louis


    In May 1939, the German transatlantic liner St. Louis sailed from Germany to Cuba. Most of the passengers were Jews fleeing Nazi Germany. Learn more about the voyage.

    Voyage of the St. Louis
  • International Military Tribunal: The Defendants


    Listing of the 24 leading Nazi officials indicted at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Learn about the defendants and the charges against them.

    International Military Tribunal: The Defendants
  • Prisoners of the Camps


    Jews were the main targets of Nazi genocide. Learn about other individuals from a broad range of backgrounds who were imprisoned in the Nazi camp system.

    Prisoners of the Camps
  • Resistance in the Smaller Ghettos of Eastern Europe: Glossary


    Learn more about the Holocaust Encyclopedia’s key terms and selected youth movements related to resistance in the smaller ghettos of eastern Europe.

  • Robert Mills Donihi describes defendants at the postwar US trials in Germany

    Oral History

    In 1945, Robert Mills Donihi was practicing law in Nashville, Tennessee. He accepted a government assignment to Tokyo where he worked on the trial of 28 high-ranking Japanese officers. After a year, he left for Germany, and arrived in Nuremberg in January 1947. Donihi was a member of the legal team at the postwar US trials in Germany, serving as both an interrogator and a prosecutor.

    Robert Mills Donihi describes defendants at the postwar US trials in Germany
  • Work permit issued to Max Diamant


    Dr. J. Rebhan, chair of the Jewish council in Przemysl, Poland, signed this document certifying that Max Diamant had stable employment in the Jewish clinic. The certificate identifies Diamant as a dentist and is dated June 4, 1942. During World War II, the Germans established Jewish councils to ensure that Nazi orders and regulations were implemented. Jewish council members also sought to provide basic community services for ghettoized Jewish populations.

    Work permit issued to Max Diamant
  • Righteous Among the Nations


    Righteous Among the Nations are non-Jewish individuals honored by Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial, for risking their lives to aid Jews during the Holocaust.

    Righteous Among the Nations
  • Josef Nassy


    A Black expatriate artist living in Belgium upon the outbreak of WWII, Josef Nassy was held in German internment camps during the war. Learn about his experiences.

  • Night and Fog Decree


    The "Nacht und Nebel" decree allowed German authorities to capture without trace ("by night and fog") and try individuals alleged to be "endangering German security."

    Night and Fog Decree
  • Adolf Hitler: Early Years, 1889–1913


    Under Adolf Hitler, the Nazi regime would be responsible for the murder of 6 million Jews and millions of other victims. Learn about Hitler's early years.

  • Raizel Kisielnicki

    ID Card

    Raizel lived with her husband, Mojsze, and their three children in the small, predominantly Jewish town of Kaluszyn, which was 35 miles east of Warsaw. By the 1930s, Mojsze owned a grocery store, a restaurant, and a gas station, all of which were located together on the heavily traveled main road. The family lived in rooms in the same building as their business. 1933-39: Every day Raizel prepares the roast goose served in the family's restaurant. They have a bustling business, as many truck drivers stop…

    Tags: Poland
    Raizel Kisielnicki
  • Sandor Alexander Bokshorn

    ID Card

    Sandor grew up in Budapest where his father was a furrier. Sandor attended a Jewish school until he was 14 and then entered a business school run by the chamber of commerce. After he graduated in 1929, he entered his father's business. Sandor then spent a year studying at the Sorbonne in Paris before entering university in Budapest to study economics. 1933-39: As a Jew, Sandor was in the minority at the university because anti-Jewish laws enacted in the 1920s had set quotas that limited Jewish applicants.…

    Sandor Alexander Bokshorn
  • Sarah Rivka Felman

    ID Card

    One of seven children, Sarah was raised in a Yiddish-speaking, religious Jewish home in Sokolow Podlaski, a manufacturing town in central Poland with a large Jewish population of some 5,000. Sarah's parents ran a grain business. In 1930, Sarah began attending public elementary school in Sokolow Podlaski. 1933-39: After graduating from middle school in 1937 at the age of 14, Sarah helped out her now widowed mother in the family's grain business. Two years later, Germany attacked Poland. German aircraft…

    Sarah Rivka Felman
  • Chinka Schwarzbard Felman

    ID Card

    One of six children, Chinka was raised in a Yiddish-speaking, religious Jewish family in the town of Ostrow Mazowiecka, where her father was a wine maker. In 1910 she married Ephraim Isaac Felman, and a few years later the couple moved to Sokolow Podlaski, where Chinka helped her husband run a grain business. The Felmans had seven children, two of whom died in infancy. 1933-39: Chinka's husband died in 1935, and she took over the grain business with the help of her children. That same year, her oldest…

    Chinka Schwarzbard Felman
  • Pawel Wos

    ID Card

    Pawel, a Roman Catholic, fled to Danzig, Germany, in 1914 to avoid conscription in the Russian army. Since Germany and Russia were at war, Pawel was arrested by the Germans as an enemy alien and sent to work on a farm in northern Germany. He met Anna Szachowska there, and they married in 1918. The couple moved to Warsaw where they raised 4 children. In 1930 Pawel opened a textile business. 1933-39: Despite the Depression, Pawel's business prospered and they expanded their operations. In 1938 some friends…

    Pawel Wos
  • Miksa Deutsch

    ID Card

    Miksa was the youngest of four children born to religious Jewish parents. The Deutches lived in the town of Bistrita in Transylvania, a region of Romania that belonged to Hungary until 1918. After 1910, the family lived in nearby Viseu de Sus. In 1922 Miksa moved to Budapest, Hungary, where he and his older brother, Pal, opened a business selling matches. In 1928 Miksa married Kornelia Mahrer. 1933-39: Miksa and Kornelia had three children, whom they raised with a religious education. Miksa and his…

    Miksa Deutsch
  • Kornelia Mahrer Deutsch

    ID Card

    Kornelia was known as Nelly. She was the older of two daughters raised by Jewish parents in the Hungarian capital of Budapest. Her father fought in the Hungarian army during World War I. Kornelia attended public school and later worked as a bookkeeper for a soap factory. In 1928 she married Miksa Deutsch, a businessman who sold matches. 1933-39: Kornelia's husband was religious and the Deutsches' three children attended Jewish schools. Miksa and his brother were the sole distributors in Hungary of…

    Kornelia Mahrer Deutsch
  • Heinrich Baehr

    ID Card

    A Jewish merchant, Heinrich ran a dry goods business with his wife, Yennj, in Ruchheim, a small town in the Rhine River valley. Their son, Kurt, had immigrated to America after World War I. Their daughter, Ida, had helped them in the business until she married. The Baehrs' store took up the first floor of their comfortable two-story brick house. In the summer, they enjoyed their garden in the back. 1933-39: The Nazis have come to power, and many Jews have decided to leave Germany. Heinrich and Yennj's…

    Heinrich Baehr
  • Dr. Johan Hendrik Weidner

    ID Card

    Johan was the eldest of four children born to Dutch parents. His father was a minister in the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. Johan grew up in Collonges, France, where his father served as a pastor. After attending French public schools, Johan graduated from the Seventh-Day Adventist Seminary in Collonges, and went on to study law and business at the universities of Geneva and Paris. 1933-39: After completing his studies in 1935, Johan opened an import/export textile business in Paris. Business prospered…

    Tags: Belgium France
    Dr. Johan Hendrik Weidner

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