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  • Gisella Renate Berg

    ID Card

    Gisella lived with her parents, grandparents, uncle, and older sister, Inge, in Lechenich, a small village outside of Cologne. The Bergs were an observant Jewish family. Gisella's grandfather was the president of the local synagogue association and her uncle was the cantor. Her father, Josef was a respected cattle dealer, who had many business and personal contacts with their Jewish and non-Jewish neighbors. 1933–39: Gisella was born several months after the Nazis came to power. Her parents feared for…

    Gisella Renate Berg
  • Morris Kornberg

    ID Card

    Morris was the youngest of six children born to a religious Jewish family in Przedborz, a south central Polish town with a large Jewish population. Morris' family owned a business that supplied nearby factories with raw metal materials. 1933-39: When Germany invaded Poland in early September 1939 Morris and his family fled to the woods. They returned a few days later; most of the town had been burned down. The Nazis set up a ghetto and ordered everyone age 13 to 50 to report for work details. His family…

    Morris Kornberg
  • Antisemitic cartoon


    An antisemitic cartoon published in Dr. Kurt Plischke's Der Jude als Rassenschaender: Eine Anklage gegen Juda und eine Mahnung an die deutschen Frauen und Maedchen (The Jew as Race Defiler: An Accusation against Judah and a Warning to German Women and Girls). Germany, ca. 1935.

    Antisemitic cartoon
  • The Nazi Kripo (Criminal Police)


    The Nazi Kripo, or Criminal Police, was the detective force of Nazi Germany. During the Nazi regime and WWII, it became a key enforcer of policies based in Nazi ideology.

  • The Sicherheitsdienst (SD)


    The Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service, SD) was a Nazi intelligence agency. Ideologically radical and part of the SS, it was a key perpetrator of the Holocaust.

    The Sicherheitsdienst (SD)
  • Life After the Holocaust: Thomas Buergenthal


    After WWII and the fall of the Nazi regime, Holocaust survivors faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. Listen to Thomas Buergenthal's story.

    Life After the Holocaust: Thomas Buergenthal
  • Olga Gelb

    ID Card

    Olga was born to religious Jewish parents in a small city in Ruthenia. The country's easternmost province, Ruthenia had been ruled by Hungary until 1918. One of eight children, Olga grew up in a prosperous home in which both Yiddish and Hungarian were spoken. Her father worked as a wholesale leather merchant. Olga attended both public school and a Hebrew girls' school. 1933-39: Under Czech rule Olga could be religious and not face discrimination at school. Her parents were pleased when Ruthenia became a…

    Olga Gelb
  • Tomas Kulka

    ID Card

    Tomas' parents were Jewish. His father, Robert Kulka, was a businessman from the Moravian town of Olomouc. His mother, Elsa Skutezka, was a milliner from Brno, the capital of Moravia. The couple was well-educated and spoke both Czech and German. They married in 1933 and settled in Robert's hometown of Olomouc. 1933-39: Tomas was born a year and a day after his parents were married. When Tomas was 3, his grandfather passed away and the Kulkas moved to Brno, which was his mother's hometown. On March 15,…

    Tomas Kulka
  • Ilona Haas Geroe

    ID Card

    Ilona was one of seven children born to a Jewish family in the city of Szeged, about 100 miles south of Budapest. Her father was an accountant. At the turn of the century many of Ilona's father's relatives emigrated to the United States, but Ilona's father decided to stay. Ilona also became an accountant and got a job in Szeged. 1933-39: Ilona's work as an accountant kept her busy but her free time was spent enjoying music and sports. She also began to study English since so many of her relatives had…

    Tags: Szeged Hungary
    Ilona Haas Geroe
  • Oskar Schindler


    Oskar Schindler's actions to protect Jews during the Holocaust saved over 1,000 Jews from deportation. Learn more about Schindler's List.

    Oskar Schindler
  • Frank Hamburger describes the Ohrdruf camp

    Oral History

    Frank F. Hamburger, Jr., of Columbus, Georgia, was with the 65th Infantry Division.

    Frank Hamburger describes the Ohrdruf camp
  • Walter Marx


    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Walter Marx.

  • Pavol Kovac

    ID Card

    As a boy, Pavol lived with his parents in the city of Martin in Slovakia. His father taught at the local agricultural college. The Kovacs, who were non-practicing Jews, were among the few Jewish residents in the town. 1933-39: When Pavol was born, almost nine months before the outbreak of World War II, his parents decided to have "Roman Catholic" listed under the entry for religion in his birth certificate. They took this step to protect him, despite the fact that for generations Jews in their region had…

    Pavol Kovac
  • Wolf Wajsbrot

    ID Card

    When Wolf was a young boy, his family moved to France to escape Poland's economic instability and growing antisemitism. Soon after they settled in Paris, his father found work in construction, and Wolf started elementary school. 1933-39: Paris was home to Wolf, but he loved to listen to his parents reminisce about autumns in Krasnik and journeys to Lublin. Hitler invaded Poland in 1939. The Wajsbrots learned of the death camps and mass deportations of Jews. Wolf's parents no longer spoke of the past. Wolf…

    Wolf Wajsbrot
  • Hidden Children: Hardships


    Parents, children, and rescuers faced daunting challenges once the decision was made for a child to go into hiding during the Holocaust.

    Hidden Children: Hardships
  • How To Identify Reputable Historical Sources


    Historical events should be analyzed in their appropriate historical context. Learn how to assess the identify the quality, reliability, and integrity of a source.

    How To Identify Reputable Historical Sources
  • Avraham Tory


    Learn about the Kovno ghetto diary and other documents Avraham Tory saved in a secret archive that documented life in the ghetto.

    Avraham Tory
  • Chaim Yelin


    Yiddish writer Chaim Yelin was a leader of the Kovno ghetto underground resistance movement again the Germans.

  • Frank Liebermann


    Explore Frank Liebermann’s biography and learn about his experiences of antisemitism in his home town in Germany before World War II.

    Frank Liebermann
  • Gay Men under the Nazi Regime


    The Nazi regime carried out a campaign against male homosexuality and persecuted gay men between 1933 and 1945.

    Gay Men under the Nazi Regime
  • Beifeld album page titled "Mementos"


    Collage entitled: "Mementos from the Russian campaign," which includes a watercolor of Stalin with the caption: 'Russia a meeting place for foreigners 1942-43' (top); a commuter train ticket issued to military personnel who carried the special SAS [Hurry, Immediate, Urgent] draft notice (middle, right); a pseudo travel brochure cover entitled 'Spend your summer vacation in merry Russia' (bottom, left); and the original design for the cover of the labor company's journal entitled 'Hungarian Royal 109/13…

    Beifeld album page titled "Mementos"
  • Insignia of the 84th Infantry Division


    Insignia of the 84th Infantry Division. The 84th Infantry Division derives its nickname, "Railsplitter" division, from the divisional insignia, an ax splitting a rail. This design was created during World War I, when the division was known as the "Lincoln" division to represent the states that supplied soldiers for the division: Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. All figured prominently in the life of President Abraham Lincoln, of log-splitting legend.

    Insignia of the 84th Infantry Division
  • Jewish Badge: Origins


    Decrees that ordered Jews to wear special badges for purposes of identification existed before the Nazi era. Learn about this history.

    Tags: badges
  • The 84th Infantry Division during World War II


    The 84th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two Neuengamme subcamps, Hannover-Ahlem and Salzwedel, in 1945.

  • Julius Streicher: Biography


    Julius Streicher, an early Nazi Party members, was an organizer of the anti-Jewish boycott of April 1933 and publisher of the virulently antisemitic Der Stürmer.

    Julius Streicher: Biography

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