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  • Regina (Laks) Gelb at college

    Photo

    Regina in her college dormitory room at Indiana University. Bloomington, Indiana, 1952.

    Regina (Laks) Gelb at college
  • James Ingo Freed: Architect of the Museum

    Article

    Architect James Ingo Freed designed the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    James Ingo Freed: Architect of the Museum
  • Pavol Kovac

    ID Card

    As a boy, Pavol lived with his parents in the city of Martin in Slovakia. His father taught at the local agricultural college. The Kovacs, who were non-practicing Jews, were among the few Jewish residents in the town. 1933-39: When Pavol was born, almost nine months before the outbreak of World War II, his parents decided to have "Roman Catholic" listed under the entry for religion in his birth certificate. They took this step to protect him, despite the fact that for generations Jews in their region had…

    Pavol Kovac
  • Julien Bryan

    Article

    US filmmaker and photographer Julien Bryan was one of the few western photographers left in Warsaw upon the German invasion of Poland in September 1939.

    Julien Bryan
  • Rome

    Article

    Rome after the German Occupation At the time of the German occupation of northern and central Italy in early September 1943, there were approximately 12,000 Jews living in Rome. The German occupiers sought to include Italian Jews in the "Final Solution". The commander of the German Security Police (Sipo) and the Security Service (SD) in Rome levied a ransom on local Jews, demanding about 110 pounds of gold in exchange for the safety of the Jewish community of Rome. Although the Jewish community delivered…

  • Helen Keller

    Article

    Helen Keller was an author, suffragist, and disability rights advocate. Her socialist and anti-war writing was burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.

    Helen Keller
  • Documenting Liberation: J Malan Heslop

    Article

    Learn about J Malan Heslop, one of the first Allied photographers in the Army Signal Corps to document evidence of Nazi crimes.

    Documenting Liberation: J Malan Heslop
  • Father Jacques

    Article

    Father Jacques (Lucien Bunel) provided refuge to Jews and others at a school in Avon, France. Imprisoned in several Nazi camps for his activities, he died soon after liberation.

    Father Jacques
  • John Dolibois describes translating for a prison psychiatrist

    Oral History

    John Dolibois immigrated to the United States in 1931 at the age of 13. After graduating from college, Dolibois joined the 16th Armored Division of the US Army. Due to his German language skills, he became involved in military intelligence. He returned to Europe in this capacity toward the end of World War II. Dolibois interrogated German prisoners of war, including leading Nazis, in preparation for the postwar trials of war criminals. He was later appointed US ambassador to Luxembourg, his birthplace.

    John Dolibois describes translating for a prison psychiatrist
  • Vidkun Quisling

    Article

    Vidkun Quisling, Minister President of Norway from 1942 to 1945, was a Norwegian fascist and Nazi collaborator. His last name has come to mean “traitor” or “collaborator.” 

    Vidkun Quisling
  • Life After the Holocaust: Regina Gelb

    Article

    After WWII and the fall of the Nazi regime, Holocaust survivors faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. Listen to Regina Gelb's story.

    Life After the Holocaust: Regina Gelb
  • Landsberg Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Landsberg DP camp.

    Landsberg Displaced Persons Camp
  • William L. Shirer

    Article

    American journalist, foreign correspondent, author, and pioneer radio broadcaster William L. Shirer was one of the key observers and chroniclers of the Nazi regime.  

  • Ritchie Boys

    Article

    “Ritchie Boys” is a term used for American soldiers who trained at Camp Ritchie during World War II. Several thousand were Jewish refugees from Europe. Learn more.

    Ritchie Boys
  • The United States: Isolation-Intervention

    Article

    When WWII began, most Americans wanted the US to stay isolated from the war. From December 1941, the majority rallied in support of intervention to defeat the Axis powers.

    The United States: Isolation-Intervention
  • Charles E. Coughlin

    Article

    Charles Coughlin, Catholic priest and populist leader, promoted antisemitic and pro-fascist views. In the 1930s, he was one of the most influential public figures in the US.

    Tags: antisemitism
  • Jacob Wiener

    Article

    Explore Jacob Weiner’s biography and learn about his experiences during Kristallnacht in Würzburg, Germany.

  • Celia Petranker

    ID Card

    Celia was the youngest of three daughters born to Jewish parents living in Stanislav [Stanislawow], Poland. Her father was an ardent Zionist, and dreamed of moving his family to Palestine to help build a Jewish homeland. Celia and her sisters attended private Hebrew primary and secondary schools to help prepare them for their eventual immigration to Palestine. 1933-39: Celia's oldest sister, Pepka, left for Palestine one week after the Germans invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Pepka's departure was…

    Celia Petranker
  • Frances Perkins

    Article

    Frances Perkins was FDR's secretary of labor. Learn about her role in the rescue of European Jews whose lives were threatened by the Nazi regime.

    Frances Perkins
  • John Dolibois describes attitude of captured Nazi leaders

    Oral History

    John Dolibois immigrated to the United States in 1931 at the age of 13. After graduating from college, Dolibois joined the 16th Armored Division of the US Army. Due to his German language skills, he became involved in military intelligence. He returned to Europe in this capacity toward the end of World War II. Dolibois interrogated German prisoners of war, including leading Nazis, in preparation for the postwar trials of war criminals. He was later appointed US ambassador to Luxembourg, his birthplace.

    John Dolibois describes attitude of captured Nazi leaders
  • Collections Highlight: Selma Schwarzwald and her Bear, "Refugee"

    Article

    While living under an assumed identity after escaping from the Lvov ghetto, Selma Schwarzwald received a toy bear that she kept with her for many years. Read about Refugee the bear.

    Collections Highlight: Selma Schwarzwald and her Bear, "Refugee"
  • Herzogenbusch Subcamps

    Article

    Learn about the subcamps of the SS-established Herzogenbusch concentration camp in the Netherlands, including Amersfoort, Arnheim, Eindhoven, and others.

  • Misuse of Holocaust Imagery Today: When Is It Antisemitism?

    Article

    Many images and symbols from the Holocaust era have become easily recognizable. The familiarit...

    Tags: antisemitism
  • Book Burning

    Timeline Event

    May 10, 1933. On this date, books deemed "un-German" are publicly burned throughout Germany.

    Book Burning
  • Daniel Schwarzwald

    ID Card

    Daniel, usually known as Danek, was one of three children born to Raphael and Amalia Schwarzwald, a Jewish couple living in a village near Lvov. When he was a young boy, his family moved to Lvov, where he went on to attend secondary school and a business college. Daniel opened a lumber export business. He traveled extensively and could speak Polish, German, Russian, Yiddish and English. 1933-39: Business prospered and in 1935 Daniel married Laura Litwak and settled in an apartment in a Christian section…

    Tags: Lvov
    Daniel Schwarzwald

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