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  • France


    Learn about France during the Holocaust and WWII, the liberation of France, postwar trials, and the legacy of Vichy France’s collaboration with Nazi Germany.

  • Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding


    These tiny black, white, gold, and clear glass beads were used by Rachel “Chelly” de Groot from November 1942 to April 1944 and recovered by her brother Louis after the war. Chelly used the beads to make handicrafts. On November 16, 1942, Chelly, then 15, Louis, 13, and their parents Meijer and Sophia left Arnhem and went into hiding after the Dutch police warned them of a raid. Meijer and Sophia hid in Amsterdam while Chelly and Louis moved around to different locations. In summer or fall 1943,…

    Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding
  • Thomas Pfeffer

    ID Card

    Thomas' father, Heinz, was a German-Jewish refugee who had married Henriette De Leeuw, a Dutch-Jewish woman. Frightened by the Nazi dictatorship and the murder of Heinz's uncle in a concentration camp, they immigrated to the Netherlands when Henriette was nine months pregnant with Thomas' older brother. They settled in Amsterdam. 1933-39: Thomas, also known as Tommy, was born 18 months after his older brother, Jan-Peter. In 1939 the parents and brother of Tommy's father joined them in the Netherlands as…

    Thomas Pfeffer
  • Photograph showing Kurt, Helene Reik's son, holding his baby Margarida


    Photograph showing Kurt, Helene Reik's son, holding his baby Margarida, in Rio de Janeiro in 1940. After her deportation to the Theresienstadt ghetto in Czechoslovakia, Helene yearned to record what was happening to her. This photograph was sent to Helene, who used it as paper for her diary in Theresienstadt. Helene’s makeshift diary offers wistful memories of her husband and parents who died before the war, loving thoughts of her family who had left Europe in 1939, and a firsthand account of the…

    Photograph showing Kurt, Helene Reik's son, holding his baby Margarida
  • Non-Jewish Resistance


    A variety of non-Jewish groups and individuals resisted the Nazi regime, both in Germany and in German-occupied territory. Learn more.

    Non-Jewish Resistance
  • Indoctrinating Youth


    The Nazi Party targeted German youth as a special audience for its propaganda messages. Read more about the indoctrination of youth.

    Indoctrinating Youth
  • Refuge in Latin America


    Most Latin American nations were relatively open to immigrants from 1918 to 1933. After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, however, as the search for refuge intensified, both popular and official resistance to the acceptance of European Jews and other foreigners increased. Latin American governments officially permitted only about 84,000 Jewish refugees to immigrate between 1933 and 1945, less than half the number admitted during the previous fifteen years. Others entered these countries through illegal…

    Refuge in Latin America
  • Misuse of Holocaust Imagery Today: When Is It Antisemitism?


    Many images and symbols from the Holocaust era have become easily recognizable. The familiarit...

    Tags: antisemitism
  • Romania


    The treaties that followed World War I more than doubled the territory and population of Romania. The 1930 Romanian census recorded 728,115 persons who identified themselves as Jewish, comprising approximately 4 percent of the population. Traditionally, Romania had strong ties to France but tried (under its ruler King Carol II), to remain neutral in the 1930s. With the fall of France in June 1940, Nazi Germany supported the revisionist demands for Romanian territory of the Soviet Union, Hungary, and…

  • Klaus Barbie: The Butcher of Lyon


    Klaus Barbie, chief of the Gestapo in Lyon, France, was nicknamed the "Butcher of Lyon" for his brutal actions towards Jews and members of the French Resistance.

    Tags: perpetrators

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