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  • Resistance in the Smaller Ghettos of Eastern Europe

    Article

    A Project of the Miles Lerman Center The Warsaw ghetto uprising of April 1943 is often viewed as the classic example of Jewish armed resistance to Nazi oppression during the Holocaust. Indeed, most studies of Jewish resistance have focused on events in the larger ghettos such as Warsaw, Bialystok, Grodno, or Minsk. However, Jews engaged in some form of resistance in many of the ghettos the Germans established. Jews generally took the option of armed resistance as the last resort, and only after the…

  • The Farhud

    Article

    The Farhud (pogrom), an outbreak of mob violence against Baghdad Jewry in June 1941, was a turning point in the history of Jews in Iraq. Learn more

    Tags: pogroms
  • Joseph Goebbels

    Article

    Joseph Goebbels, Nazi politician, propagandist, and radical antisemite, was Reich Minister for Propaganda and Public Enlightenment from 1933 until 1945.

    Joseph Goebbels
  • Esther Lurie

    Article

    Artist Esther Lurie documented life in the Kovno ghetto for its secret archives. Learn about her watercolors and sketches, the majority of which have never been found.

    Tags: artists Kovno
    Esther Lurie
  • The International League Against Anti-Semitism in North Africa

    Article

    International League Against Anti-Semitism in North Africa (LICA) was born of French-Jewish concerns that Fascist and antisemitic ideas would spread from Europe to indigenous population in France’s colonies. The org...

  • Rudolf (Rezső) Kasztner

    Article

    Rudolf Kasztner (1906–1957) was born in Cluj (then Kolozsvár) in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was a Hungarian-Jewish journalist and Labor Zionist activist. He would become most well known for his controversial efforts to help Jewish refugees escape from Hungary in 1944. Before the German Occupation of Hungary Kasztner grew up in Transylvania (annexed to Hungary in 1940). He attended law school, but worked as a journalist. He became involved in Zionist politics in Hungary and joined the Labor…

    Rudolf (Rezső) Kasztner
  • The Vélodrome d'Hiver (Vél d'Hiv) Roundup

    Article

    The Vélodrome d'Hiver (or Vél d'Hiv) roundup was the largest French deportation of Jews during the Holocaust. It took place in Paris on July 16–17, 1942.

    The Vélodrome d'Hiver (Vél d'Hiv) Roundup
  • Killing Centers: In Depth

    Article

    The Nazis established killing centers in German-occupied Europe during WWII. They built these killing centers for the mass murder of human beings.

    Killing Centers: In Depth
  • Jewish Life in Europe Before the Holocaust

    Article

    When the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, Jews were living in every country of Europe. A total of roughly nine million Jews lived in the countries that would be occupied by Germany during World War II. By the end of the war, two out of ever...

    Tags: antisemitism
    Jewish Life in Europe Before the Holocaust
  • Persecution of Roma (Gypsies) in Prewar Germany, 1933–1939

    Article

    Persecution of Roma (Gypsies) in Prewar Germany and throughout Europe preceded the Nazi takeover of power in 1933. For example, in 1899, the police in the German state of Bavaria, formed the Central Office for Gypsy Affairs (Zigeunerzentrale) to coordinate police action against Roma in the city of Munich. This office compiled a central registry of Roma that grew to include data on Roma and Sinti from other German states.  After the Nazis came to power in 1933, police in Germany began more rigorous…

    Persecution of Roma (Gypsies) in Prewar Germany, 1933–1939

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