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  • Operation Torch: The Anglo-American Invasion of French North Africa

    Article

    The Operation Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. It began on November 8 and concluded on November 16, 1942. It resulted from an uneasy compromise between the Western Allies, and was intended to relieve pressure on the Soviet Union by imperiling Axis forces in the region and by enabling an invasion of Southern Europe in 1943. Commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the operation was designed as a pincer…

  • North Africa

    Series

    Learn about North Africa's Jewish communities; WWII military campaigns in North Africa; Vichy's introduction of race laws; and networks of labor camps in North Africa.

  • Tunisia Campaign

    Article

    The Tunisian campaign began with an Allied amphibious landing near Sfax in eastern Tunisia on January 5, 1943, and an attack on German positions at Gafsa in west central Tunisia on March 17, 1943. On February 4, 1943, the British Eighth Army crossed the border from Libya into Tunisia. Squeezed between US and British Commonwealth forces and cut off from his supply bases, German General Erwin Rommel attempted to stall the Allies with defensive operations. German and Italian troops managed to rout the US…

    Tunisia Campaign
  • Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya

    Article

    Fighting began in North Africa on September 13, 1940, when Marshal Rodolfo Graziani's Italian 10th Army launched an attack from its bases in Libya on outnumbered British forces in western Egypt. A successful British counterattack initiated on December 9, 1940, led by General Sir Archibald Wavell, resulted in Italian defeat at Tobruk (Tubruq) in eastern Libya on January 22, 1941. On February 12, 1941, German General Erwin Rommel arrived in Libya to take command of troops sent to reinforce Germany's Italian…

    Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya
  • Camps in North Africa

    Media Essay

    In Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and French West Africa, French collaborationist Vichy authorities established a network of different types of camps: penal camps, labor camps, and internment camps.  These camps included Jewish and non-Jewish European...

  • Jewish communities in North Africa

    Media Essay

    North African Jews did not constitute a single community before or during World War II but, rather, were a diverse population of roughly 500,000, divided between the present-day countries of the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya...

  • Flight and Rescue

    Article

    Explore the story of over 2,000 Polish Jewish refugees who fled east to escape war-torn Europe. They sought safety in such distant places as China and Japan.

    Flight and Rescue
  • Erwin Rommel

    Article

    Erwin Rommel was commander of the German Afrika Korps in North Africa during WWII. Learn about Rommel's military career, death, and ongoing questions around his commitment to Nazism.

    Erwin Rommel
  • Hermann Ludwig Maas

    Article

    Hermann Ludwig Maas, a Protestant pastor in Heidelberg, Germany, was a rescuer and clergyman who stood in solidarity with the Jewish community.

  • Vidkun Quisling

    Article

    Vidkun Quisling, Minister President of Norway from 1942 to 1945, was a Norwegian fascist and Nazi collaborator. His last name has come to mean “traitor” or “collaborator.” 

    Vidkun Quisling

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