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  • German invasion of Norway and the naval war

    Film

    Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940, simultaneously attacking Norway's coastal cities from Narvik in the far north to Oslo in the south. Despite Allied naval superiority, German naval forces played an important role in the campaign. This footage shows German naval units sailing towards Norway in rough seas. German victory in Norway secured access to the North Atlantic for the German navy, especially the submarine fleet, and safeguarded transports of Swedish iron ore for Germany's war industry.

    German invasion of Norway and the naval war
  • Invasion of the Soviet Union, June 1941

    Article

    On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The surprise attack marked a turning point in the history of World War II and the Holocaust.

    Invasion of the Soviet Union, June 1941
  • Ravensbrück

    Article

    Learn about conditions and the treatment of prisoners in Ravensbrück, the largest concentration camp for women in the German Reich.

    Ravensbrück
  • The Holocaust and World War II: Key Dates

    Article

    Read a detailed timeline of the Holocaust and World War II. Learn about key dates and events from 1933-45 as Nazi antisemitic policies became more radical.

    The Holocaust and World War II: Key Dates
  • Feliks Bruks

    ID Card

    Feliks was the only child of Catholic parents living in Czarnkow, a town close to the German border, some 40 miles north of Poznan. Czarnkow was situated on the Notec River. Feliks' parents owned a mineral water, soda and beer factory. They delivered their goods by horse and wagon to towns throughout the area. His parents also owned a restaurant and 120 acres of farmland. 1933-39: In 1937 Feliks entered the University of Poznan to study pharmacy. His education was cut short when the German army invaded…

    Feliks Bruks
  • Hürtgen Forest

    Article

    In months of fighting with heavy losses, the US Army attempted to pierce the heavily fortified Hürtgen Forest section of Germany's border defenses. Learn more about the campaign.

    Hürtgen Forest
  • Jewish Brigade Group

    Article

    Beginning in 1920, Great Britain ruled Palestine under a mandate created by the League of Nations. The British were to facilitate the establishment of a modern Jewish homeland. Due to Arab opposition to the proposed Jewish homeland in Palestine, the British initially refused to establish a separate fighting unit of Jewish volunteers from Palestine. However, wartime manpower requirements and the strategic need to defend the Middle East induced the British to permit the formation of 15 Palestinian Jewish…

    Jewish Brigade Group
  • Latvia

    Article

    Baltic Countries: Maps Latvia is one of the Baltic states. It is situated between Estonia to the north and Lithuania to the south. Latvia was an independent republic between the end of World War I and 1940. In 1935, 94,000 Jews lived in Latvia, making up about 5 percent of the total population. Approximately half of Latvian Jewry lived in Riga, the capital. Latvian Jews were represented in all social and economic classes. There was a well-developed network of Jewish schools, with over 100…

    Latvia
  • 1936: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1936.

    Tags: key dates
    1936: Key Dates
  • Lvov

    Article

    The city of Lvov (L'viv) in southeastern Poland was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939, under the terms of the German-Soviet Pact. There were over 200,000 Jews in Lvov in September 1939; nearly 100,000 were Jewish refugees from German-occupied Poland. The Germans subsequently occupied Lvov after the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Encouraged by German forces to begin violent actions against the Jewish population in Lvov, Ukrainian nationalists massacred about 4,000 Jews in early July 1941.…

    Lvov

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