Beginning in 1938, the Nazis increased their territorial control outside of Germany. By 1942, three years into World War II, Nazi Germany reached the peak of its expansion. At the height of its power, Germany had incorporated, seized, or occupied most of the continent. However, also in 1942, the Allied Powers started to systematically bomb Germany. They would continue to do so until Germany's surrender in 1945, weakening the war effort and demolishing cities. Slowly, the Allied Powers began pushing…
Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940, simultaneously attacking Norway's coastal cities from Narvik in the far north to Oslo in the south. Narvik was the scene of fierce battles between German forces and the Allies, who landed troops by sea in support of the Norwegians. Narvik changed hands several times. However, British, French, and Polish forces were finally withdrawn in June 1940 due to the success of the German campaign in western Europe. German victory in Norway secured access to the North Atlantic…
Louis Fischer was an American political historian. In May 1933, his work was burned in Nazi Germany for its sympathy toward Communism. Learn more.
Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Explore key events in the world and his life from 1952 until his death in 2016.
Allied troops board amphibious assault boats off the Algerian coast during Operation Torch. North Africa, November 1942.
Children stand at attention during a flag raising ceremony at the Ayindram Betar summer camp. Tunisia, North Africa, 1946.
Cover of Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms. (1929 cover. Princeton University Library.) In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames during the book burning were the works of Ernest Hemingway.
Some individuals and groups in Germany attempted to resist Nazism, despite the risk of being caught and facing punishment. Learn more about their efforts.
Sami Dorra working at dam construction in the Im Fout labor camp. The camp was approximately 59 miles southwest of Casablanca, and housed a group of foreign workers. Im Fout, Morocco, 1941-42.
Franz Oppenheimer was a sociologist and economist who expanded on tenets proposed by Karl Marx. Two of his works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
Max Brod was a Jewish author most widely known as the biographer and editor of Franz Kafka. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
To implement their policies, the Nazis had help from individuals across Europe, including professionals in many fields. Learn about the role of academics and teachers.
Jack London was an American author who wrote “The Call of the Wild.” His socialist leaning works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Karl Kautsky was a leading Marxist and Socialist theoretician in the Austrian Social Democratic movement. His books were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.
Ferdinand Lassalle was a founder of the German labor movement. Some 70 years after his death, his works were burned in Nazi Germany for their socialist doctrine.
Marc Chagall was an artist who depicted rich imagery of Russian and Jewish life. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition.
John Reed was a journalist who helped found the Communist US Labor Party. During the 1933 Nazi book burnings, his work was burned for its Communist sympathies.
Learn about the rescue activities and the fates of Ona Simaite in Lithuania, Joop Westerweel in the Netherlands, and Irena Sendler in Poland.
Hundreds of laws, decrees, guidelines, and regulations increasingly restricted the civil and human rights of Jews in Germany from 1933-39. Learn more.
Elie Wiesel was a human rights activist, author, and teacher who reflected on his experience during the Holocaust in more than 40 books. Learn more.
When WWII began, most Americans wanted the US to stay isolated from the war. From December 1941, the majority rallied in support of intervention to defeat the Axis powers.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1939 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
From April to July 1994, extremist leaders of Rwanda’s Hutu majority directed a genocide against the country’s Tutsi minority. Learn more
The Sephardic Jewish community of Monastir was historically the largest Jewish community in Macedonia. Learn about the community before and during WWII and the Holocaust.
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