The Vélodrome d'Hiver (or Vél d'Hiv) roundup was the largest French deportation of Jews during the Holocaust. It took place in Paris on July 16–17, 1942.
Learn about the history of the Bergen-Belsen camp during WWII and the Holocaust until its liberation by British forces in April 1945.
Hitler's political opponents were the first victims of systematic Nazi persecution. They were incarcerated without trial and under conditions of great cruelty.
Learn about some key dates in the life of Adolf Hitler, one of Europe's most ruthless dictators, who led the Nazis from 1921 and Germany from 1933-45.
Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about WWII and genocide in Europe.
The 45th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.
The German invasion of Poland in the fall of 1939 triggered WWII. Learn more about key dates and events, causes, and related Holocaust history.
Read a detailed timeline of the Holocaust and World War II. Learn about key dates and events from 1933-45 as Nazi antisemitic policies became more radical.
Nazi racism and racial antisemitism ultimately led to mass murder and genocide. Learn more about Nazi racial ideology.
Leon Trotsky was a communist and close associate of Vladimir Lenin. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933. Learn more.
Theodore Dreiser was an American author of naturalist fiction. Censorship and bans accompanied him all his life. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
August Bebel was a German socialist and founder of the Social Democratic Workers’ Party. His work was burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Otto Dix was a German artist who depicted the horrors of war. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition. Learn more.
Sigrid Undset was a Norwegian author who won the Nobel Prize for Literature. In part because of her criticism of the Nazi regime, her work was burned in 1933.
Ludwig Meidner was an Expressionist artist and poet. He was on the list of banned writers and artists in Nazi Germany. Monographs about him were burned in 1933.
Benjamin Barr Lindsey was an American judge and champion of progressive causes. His works were among those burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
Janowska was a forced labor camp for Jews in German-occupied Poland. It also served as a transit camp during the mass deportations of Polish Jews to the killing centers in 1942. Jews underwent a selection process in Janowska similar to that used a...
Ernest Hemingway was a legendary American author. In 1933, his classic novel, "A Farewell to Arms," was burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.
April 11, 1945. On this date, the US Army liberated the Dora-Mittelbau (Nordhausen) concentration camp in Germany.
Paul Klee was a German-Swiss painter and graphic artist who taught at the Bauhaus. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition.
Nazis block Jews from entering the University of Vienna. Austria, 1938.
A group of Tunisian schoolgirls wearing aprons. Nadia Cohen is in the first row, third from the left. Tunis, Tunisia, ca. 1930-1935. Nadia Cohen was born on January 17, 1924, in Tunis. Nadia's parents came from Orthodox households, but her father left the yeshiva at the age of seven to study Italian, Arabic, and accounting in a French school. In 1938, Nadia was sent to a boarding school in France. She returned home for a visit in the summer of 1939 but could not return to school that fall due to the…
Portrait of Helen Keller, seated, reading Braille. September 1907. In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames during the book burning were the works of Helen Keller.
The Nazi book burnings of 1933 sparked responses from anti-Fascist organizations, Jewish groups, and writers in the United States. Learn more.
Sigmund Freud: Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse, cover. In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were all the works of Sigmund Freud that were published by 1933.
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