The 36th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating some of the Kaufering subcamps of Dachau in 1945.
Insignia of the 36th Infantry Division. The 36th Infantry Division, the "Texas" division, was raised from National Guard units from Texas and Oklahoma during World War I. The "T" in the division's insignia represents Texas, the arrowhead Oklahoma. The division was also sometimes called the "Lone Star" division, again symbolizing its Texas roots.
The 90th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Flossenbürg concentration camp in 1945.
Insignia of the 90th Infantry Division. Called the "Tough Ombres," the 90th Infantry Division was raised from draftees from the states of Texas and Oklahoma during World War I. The divisional insignia incorporates the letters "T" and "O" to symbolize both states. These letters later yielded the nickname "Tough Ombres," symbolizing the esprit de corps of the unit. The 90th was also sometimes called the "Alamo" division during World War II.
Japan's aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, changed many Americans' attitudes toward involvement in WWII. The US immediately declared war on Japan.
Nazi student groups played a key role in aligning German universities with Nazi ideology and in solidifying Nazi power.
Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials. The Nazi burning of books in May 1933 is perhaps the most famous in history. Learn more.
Architect James Ingo Freed designed the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Earl G. Harrison, Commissioner for Immigration and Naturalization under FDR, is known for a report harshly criticizing the US and British treatment of Jewish DPs.
Louis Fischer was an American political historian. In May 1933, his work was burned in Nazi Germany for its sympathy toward Communism. Learn more.
Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Explore key events in the world and his life from 1952 until his death in 2016.
Cover of Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms. (1929 cover. Princeton University Library.) In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames during the book burning were the works of Ernest Hemingway.
Resistance inside Germany Despite the high risk of being caught by police with the help of their many informers, some individuals and groups attempted to resist Nazism even in Germany. Socialists, Communists, trade unionists, and others clandestinely wrote, printed, and distributed anti-Nazi literature. Many of these rebels were arrested and imprisoned in concentration camps. There were many plots to assassinate Hitler during the war. After the important Soviet victory at Stalingrad in early 1943, when…
To implement their policies, the Nazis had help from individuals across Europe, including professionals in many fields. Learn about the role of academics and teachers.
Franz Oppenheimer was a sociologist and economist who expanded on tenets proposed by Karl Marx. Two of his works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
Max Brod was a Jewish author most widely known as the biographer and editor of Franz Kafka. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Jack London was an American author who wrote “The Call of the Wild.” His socialist leaning works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.
Ferdinand Lassalle was a founder of the German labor movement. Some 70 years after his death, his works were burned in Nazi Germany for their socialist doctrine.
Karl Kautsky was a leading Marxist and Socialist theoretician in the Austrian Social Democratic movement. His books were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
John Reed was a journalist who helped found the Communist US Labor Party. During the 1933 Nazi book burnings, his work was burned for its Communist sympathies.
Marc Chagall was an artist who depicted rich imagery of Russian and Jewish life. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition.
Hundreds of laws, decrees, guidelines, and regulations increasingly restricted the civil and human rights of Jews in Germany from 1933-39. Learn more.
Learn about the rescue activities and the fates of Ona Simaite in Lithuania, Joop Westerweel in the Netherlands, and Irena Sendler in Poland.
Elie Wiesel was a human rights activist, author, and teacher who reflected on his experience during the Holocaust in more than 40 books. Learn more.
Learn how the rise of nationalism in Europe (1800–1918) resulted in new forms of prejudice against Jews based on political, social, and economic considerations.
The April 1, 1933, boycott of Jewish-owned businesses marked the beginning of a nationwide campaign by the Nazi Party against the entire German Jewish population.
Karl Marx was a political theorist and philosopher. He published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi.
An underground courier for the Polish government-in-exile, Jan Karski was one of the first to deliver eyewitness accounts of the Holocaust to Allied leaders.
Nazi anti-Jewish laws began stripping Jews of rights and property from the start of Hitler’s dictatorship. Learn about antisemitic laws in prewar Germany.
US radio and TV journalist Edward R. Murrow reported live from London during the Blitz; he also broadcast the first eyewitness account of the liberation of Buchenwald.
May 10, 1933. On this date, books deemed "un-German" are publicly burned throughout Germany.
In Hamburg, members of the SA and students from the University of Hamburg burn books they regard as "un-German." Hamburg, Germany, May 15, 1933.
Leon Trotsky was a communist and close associate of Vladimir Lenin. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933. Learn more.
Otto Dix was a German artist who depicted the horrors of war. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition. Learn more.
Theodore Dreiser was an American author of naturalist fiction. Censorship and bans accompanied him all his life. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
August Bebel was a German socialist and founder of the Social Democratic Workers’ Party. His work was burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Sigrid Undset was a Norwegian author who won the Nobel Prize for Literature. In part because of her criticism of the Nazi regime, her work was burned in 1933.
Ludwig Meidner was an Expressionist artist and poet. He was on the list of banned writers and artists in Nazi Germany. Monographs about him were burned in 1933.
Benjamin Barr Lindsey was an American judge and champion of progressive causes. His works were among those burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
Ernest Hemingway was a legendary American author. In 1933, his classic novel, "A Farewell to Arms," was burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.
Portrait of Helen Keller, seated, reading Braille. September 1907. In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames during the book burning were the works of Helen Keller.
Paul Klee was a German-Swiss painter and graphic artist who taught at the Bauhaus. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition.
Sigmund Freud: Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse, cover. In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were all the works of Sigmund Freud that were published by 1933.
The Nazi book burnings of 1933 sparked responses from anti-Fascist organizations, Jewish groups, and writers in the United States. Learn more.
Nazis block Jews from entering the University of Vienna. Austria, 1938.
January 27, anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, is designated by the United Nations General Assembly as International Holocaust Remembrance Day (IHRD).
Explore Jacob Weiner’s biography and learn about his experiences during Kristallnacht in Würzburg, Germany.
Frances Perkins was FDR's secretary of labor. Learn about her role in the rescue of European Jews whose lives were threatened by the Nazi regime.
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