Nazi Storm Troopers (SA) block the entrance to a trade union building that they have occupied. SA detachments occupied union offices nationwide, forcing the dissolution of the unions. Berlin, Germany, May 2, 1933.
A crowd of saluting Germans surrounds Adolf Hitler's car as he leaves the Reich Chancellery following a meeting with President Paul von Hindenburg. Berlin, Germany, November 19, 1932.
This photograph shows Julius Wolff, a young Jewish man, and Christine Neemann, his non-Jewish fiancé, standing between two police officers in Norden, Germany. Local SA men had accosted the couple and led them through the streets. The parade was meant to mock and humiliate the couple. Wolff wears a sign that reads: "I am a race defiler" ("Ich bin ein Rasseschänder"). Other photographs of this event show, and Neemann's testimony confirms, that Neemann was also forced to wear a sign. Neemann and Wolff…
An antisemitic poster published in German-occupied Poland in March 1941. The caption reads, "Jews are lice; They cause typhus." This German-published propaganda poster was intended to instill fear of Jews among Christian Poles.
Klara Taussig and Ernst Brecher go on an outing in the Austrian countryside before their marriage. They later had a son, Heinz, who was born on August 29, 1932 in Graz, Austria. where his father was a merchant. After the Germans annexed Austria in 1938, Klara and Ernst sent Heinz to live with friends of an aunt in Zagreb. Heinz survived and eventually came to the United States on the Henry Gibbins, a military troop transport. Klara and Ernst died in the concentration camps. Photograph taken…
An African-American soldier with the 12th Armored Division, Seventh U.S. Army, stands guard ov...
Adolf Hitler stands with an SA unit during a Nazi parade in Weimar, where the constitution of the Weimar Republic was drafted in 1919. Weimar, Germany, 1931.
Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Schirach speaking at the opening of the Reich Academy for Youth Leadership. Braunschweig, Germany, June 4, 1938.
Followed closely by an SS bodyguard, Adolf Hitler greets supporters at the fourth Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. Germany, August 1929. US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of William O. McWorkman
Identification card issued to Oskar Russ in the Feldafing displaced persons' camp. Oskar Russ was born in Poland in 1907. During the Holocaust, he was imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp. After liberation, he was in the Feldafing displaced persons camp before immigrating in 1947 to the United States with his wife (whom he had married in Feldafing).
Salek Liwer (center) with friends at a Dror Zionist youth movement seminar in the Bad Gastein displaced persons camp in Austria, 1946.
This report card was issued to Regina Laks, a fifth-grade student at the Herzel Hebrew Public School at the Düppel Center displaced persons camp.
Group portrait of Jewish displaced persons (DPs) in the Leipheim DP camp. From left to right are an unidentified couple, Rubin Kaplan, Zalman Kaplan (cousin), Dwora (cousin) and her husband Eli Flaks, and their infant, Pearl.
Jewish displaced persons (DPs) converse on the streets of the Neu Freimann DP camp, circa 1946–1948.The photographer, Jack Sutin, lived at the camp with his family and worked as a camp administrator and photojournalist.
Jewish displaced persons (DPs) pose outside of a barracks in the Bari Transit DP camp in Italy. Among those pictured are Izidor and Tauba Schachter with their baby Miriam Schachter (now Enright), on the far right, and Etta Gipsman, on the far left.
Two women and a child stand with metal bowls in front of a soup kitchen in the Cremona displaced persons (DP) camp in Italy, 1945. Pictured are Zelda Leikach and her daughter, Masha, with their friend Hinda.
Laurette Cohen (front row, far right) poses with her students at an Alliance Israelite School in Morocco. 1935. Laurette was born in Oran, Algeria, 1911. In 1932, she married Prosper Cohen (born in Meknes in 1909). They were both teachers for the Alliance Israelite Universelle Schools in Morocco. Their daughter, Mathilde, was born in Tangiers on August 31, 1933. Before 1939, the family lived in Meknes and Fez. Later, Laurette and Prosper were sent to teach in other different locations where they were…
Joseph Roger Cheraki poses in the uniform of an Algerian soldier, ca. 1935. Joseph met Elizabeth Seiberl, and they married on October 27, 1936, in Algiers. In 1941, Joseph lost his job, their son Alfred was expelled from school, and they later had to sell their house. In 1942 Joseph, Elizabeth, and their sons Alfred and Jacques had to wear the yellow star. Boys threw stones at Alfred and Jacques. Joseph was sent to a forced-labor camp for a few months. He was eventually released. In 1946 the family…
Prisoners at forced labor building airplane parts at the Siemens factory in the Bobrek labor camp, a subcamp of Auschwitz. February-June 1944. David Stein is pictured in the row to the right, with his back to the camera; his brother Charles is in the same row, fourth from the left, facing the camera.
Planned as a short military revolt, the Warsaw Polish uprising lasted 63 days, from August to October 1944. In the end, German troops destroyed the majority of Warsaw during and immediately after the uprising. Photo dated January 17, 1945.
Psychiatric patients are evacuated to clinics where they will be murdered as part of the Nazi Euthanasia Program. Photo taken in Germany and dated circa 1942–1944. The term "euthanasia" usually refers to causing a painless death for a chronically or terminally ill individual who would otherwise suffer. In the Nazi context, however, "euthanasia" was a euphemistic or indirect term for a clandestine murder program that targeted individuals with physical and mental disabilities.
Art handlers at the Schloss Niederschoenhausen storage depot hold a section of Emil Nolde’s confiscated “Das Leben Christi,” 1937. The Nazi regime confiscated the work as "degenerate" art.
Uniformed members of the SA parade down a city street in Duisburg during a Nazi rally, circa 1928.
Anna Gutman (Boros) (left) and her daughter, Carla (second from left), visit with Dr. Mohamed Helmy (second from right) and his wife, Emmi (right), in Berlin in 1968. Dr. Helmy hid Gutman in his home for the duration of World War II.
Anna Gutman (Boros) (seated, center), her daughter, and son-in-law visit Dr. Mohamed Helmy (seated, left) and his wife, Emmi (seated, right), in Berlin in 1980. Dr. Helmy hid Gutman in his home for the duration of World War II.
Japanese Americans wait in line to register with the War Relocation Authority, San Francisco, California, April 1942. A government agency, the War Relocation Authority was tasked with removing “enemy aliens” from designated zones. Local authorities on the West Coast forced all “persons of Japanese ancestry” to register. They were then deported, first to temporary “assembly centers” and from there to relocation centers.
The most notorious of the 189 known interrogation centers in Cambodia was S-21, housed in a former school and now called Tuol Sleng for the hill on which it stands. Between 14,000 and 17,000 prisoners were detained there, often in primitive brick cells built in former classrooms. Only 12 prisoners are believed to have survived.
A notice posted on a wall in San Francisco, California, lists “evacuation” instructions for the area’s Japanese American residents, 1942. They were deported, first to temporary “assembly centers,” and from there to relocation centers in remote areas of the United States.
A German teacher singles out a child with "Aryan" features for special praise in class. The use of such examples taught schoolchildren to judge each other from a racial perspective. Germany, wartime.
Sofia Karpuk holds a name card intended to help any of her surviving family members locate her at the Kloster Indersdorf displaced persons camp. This photograph was published in newspapers to facilitate reuniting the family. Kloster Indersdorf, Germany, October-November 1945.
German police and SS personnel wait with a convoy of trucks during a shooting action in the Palmiry forest near Warsaw. These trucks were used to transport prisoners held in the Pawiak and Mokotow prisons. October–December 1939.
Michael Fink and his parents Manfred and Herta in the Westerbork camp, 1941–1944. Westerbork's primary role was as a transit camp. However, there was also a long-term camp population there. The Finks were among these residents. The family was in Westerbork until the spring of 1944, when they were deported to Theresienstadt. Michael and Herta survived, but Manfred was killed after being deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau and other concentration camps.
The defendants and their lawyers at the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. Defendant Albert Speer (standing at right) delivers a statement in the dock. Nuremberg, Germany, November 20, 1945-October 1, 1946.
Adolf Hitler salutes a passing SS formation at the third Nazi Party Congress in 1927. Nuremberg, Germany, August 1927. The SS (Schutzstaffel, or Protection Squads) was originally established as Adolf Hitler’s personal bodyguard unit. It would later become both the elite guard of the Nazi Reich and Hitler’s executive force prepared to carry out all security-related duties, without regard for legal restraint.
Two American soldiers cross the Rhine River into Germany on March 29, 1945. In the foreground is Jack Caminer, who emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1938. After he was drafted into the US Army, Caminer was sent to Camp Ritchie to prepare for intelligence work. Caminer participated in the liberation of Ohrdruf.
An SS guard speaks with local Ukrainian women while Soviet prisoners of war carry out forced labor. A German Propaganda Company photographer took this image shortly after the SS murdered over 33,000 Jews on September 29-30,1941 at the nearby Babyn Yar killing site. Kyiv (Kiev), German-occupied Soviet Union, after September 30, 1941.
The daughter of a white German woman and a Black French soldier stands among white classmates, Munich, 1936. This image was included as a slide for lectures on genetics, ethnology, and race breeding at the State Academy for Race and Health in Dresden, Germany.
Under orders from officers of the US 8th Infantry Division, German civilians from Schwerin attend funeral services for 80 prisoners killed at the Wöbbelin concentration camp. The townspeople were ordered to bury the prisoners' corpses in the town square. Germany, May 8, 1945.
An American soldier kneels by the corpse of a prisoner on the roadside near Gardelegen. The prisoner was shot by the SS when he was too exhausted to continue on a death march. Germany, April 14-18, 1945.
A US Army soldier views the cemetery at Hadamar, where victims of the Nazi euthanasia program were buried in mass graves. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.
During the Battle of the Bulge, US troops move up to the front in open trucks in subzero weather to stop the German advance. December 22, 1944. US Army Signal Corps photograph taken by J Malan Heslop.
An American GI using his steel helmet to draw water from a stream during the Battle of the Bulge. December 22, 1944. US Army Signal Corps photograph taken by J Malan Heslop.
In 1942, seven-year-old Inge Auerbacher was deported with her parents to the Theresienstadt ghetto. She brought along this doll, named “Marlene” after German actress Marlene Dietrich, which her grandmother had given her. It would remain with Inge throughout her three years of imprisonment in the ghetto.
Jews from Bulgarian-occupied Macedonia who were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly transit camp in Skopje before deportation to the Treblinka killing center. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The…
Macedonian Jews leave the Tobacco Monopoly transit camp in Skopje for the deportation trains. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The Macedonian Jews were kept there between eleven and eighteen days, before being…
An American correspondent reads a special edition of the Nürnberger newspaper reporting the sentences handed down by the International Military Tribunal. Nuremberg, Germany, October 1, 1946.
During the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, US runner Jesse Owens begins the 200-meter race in which he established a new Olympic record of 20.7 seconds. Berlin, Germany, August 2, 1936.
Repairs and improvements are made to the courtroom where the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals would be held. The holes in the walls at the top (when completed) housed radio commentators and public address operators. September 11, 1945.
German Jewish refugee artist David Bloch. In November 1938 Bloch was interned for several weeks in the Dachau concentration camp near Munich. With the help of his brother in the United States, he escaped from Germany to Shanghai in May 1940.
Two German Jewish refugee women stand behind the counter of the Elite Provision Store (delicatessen) in Shanghai. Pictured on the left is the owner, Gerda Harpuder; on the right is her cousin Kate Benjamin. In 1939 Hans and Gerda Harpuder sold their crystal, silver, and other family possessions shipped from Berlin in order to open a grocery store in Hongkew at 737 East Broadway.
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