An emaciated child eats in the streets of the Warsaw ghetto. Warsaw, Poland, between 1940 and 1943.
A synagogue used as a warehouse for the belongings of deported Jews. Szeged ghetto, Hungary, 1944.
Stall of a street vendor selling old Hebrew books. Warsaw ghetto, Poland, February 1941.
False identification card which Vladka Meed had used from 1940–42 on the Aryan side of Warsaw, smuggling arms to Jewish fighters and helping Jews escape from the ghetto.
The Jews of Lodz move into the ghetto in March 1940.
Jews carrying their possessions during deportation to the Chelmno killing center. Most of the people seen here had previously been deported to Lodz from central Europe. Lodz, Poland, January–April 1942.
"Gypsy camp" area in the Lodz ghetto. Roma (Gypsies) were confined in a segregated block of buildings. Poland, 1941–44.
Deportation of Jews from the Lodz ghetto. Poland, August 1944.
Jewish female survivors at a convalescent home. Sweden, 1946.
A class for new immigrants in the United States. Postwar.
Liberated prisoners demonstrate the overcrowded conditions at the Buchenwald concentration camp. Photograph taken after the liberation of the camp. Buchenwald, Germany, April 23, 1945.
A mass grave at Bergen-Belsen soon after the liberation of the camp. Bergen-Belsen, Germany, May 1945.
Soon after liberation, camp survivors cook in a field. Bergen-Belsen, Germany, after April 15, 1945. In the days before liberation, the prisoners had been left without food or water. An estimated 500 inmates per day died in the days preceding and following liberation.
US General Dwight D. Eisenhower and General Troy Middleton, commanding general of the XVIII Corps, Third US Army, tour the newly liberated Ohrdruf concentration camp. Ohrdruf, Germany, April 12, 1945.
US Army staffers organizing stacks of German documents collected by war crimes investigators as evidence for the International Military Tribunal.
The defendants' dock and members of the defense counsel during the Doctors Trial. Nuremberg, Germany, December 9, 1946–August 20, 1947.
US Chief of Counsel Brigadier General Telford Taylor during the Doctors Trial. Nuremberg, Germany, December 9, 1946-August 20, 1947.
The defendants in the dock during the Justice Case, Case #3 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Nuremberg, Germany, 1947.
Defendant Otto Ohlendorf testifies on his own behalf at the Einsatzgruppen Trial, case #9 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. October 9, 1947.
Crowds gather at Berlin's Opernplatz (opera square) for the burning of books deemed "un-German." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.
View of the stone quarry in the Gross-Rosen camp, where prisoners were subjected to forced labor. Gross-Rosen, Germany, 1940-1945.
View of the Gurs camp as photographed from a water tower. Gurs, France, ca. 1941.
View through the barbed wire of the prisoner barracks in the Flossenbürg concentration camp. Flossenbürg, Germany, 1942.
Forced labor in the quarry of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Austria, date uncertain.
Deportation from the Westerbork transit camp. Members of the Jewish police are seen in the photograph. The Netherlands, 1943–44.
Main entrance to the Auschwitz-Birkenau killing center. This photograph was taken some time after the liberation of the camp in January 1945. Poland, date uncertain.
Zyklon B pellets found at the liberation of the Majdanek camp. Poland, after July 1944.
US troops land on Guadalcanal, in the Solomon Islands group. Guadalcanal was the focus of crucial battles in 1942–43. American victory in the Solomons halted the Japanese advance in the South Pacific. Guadalcanal, August 1942.
US troops land on Guadalcanal, in the Solomon Islands groups. Guadalcanal was the focus of crucial battles in 1942–43. American victory in the Solomons halted the Japanese advance in the South Pacific. Guadalcanal, date uncertain.
Jewish children gathered for a sporting event in a summer camp organized by the Reich Union of Jewish Frontline Soldiers. Germany, between 1934 and 1936.
Class photo of students and a teacher at a Jewish school in prewar Karlsruhe. Germany, July 1937.
An American soldier looks at the corpses of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian Jews found in the woods near Neunburg vorm Wald. The victims were prisoners from Flossenbürg who were shot near Neunburg while on a death march. Germany, April 29, 1945.
German infantry during the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.
Soviet refugees sit around a fire in a makeshift camp, following the German invasion of Soviet territory on June 22, 1941. Soviet Union, between 1941 and 1944.
SS Lieutenant Klaus Barbie in Nazi uniform. Barbie, responsible for atrocities against Jews and resistance activists in France, was known as the "Butcher of Lyon." Germany, date uncertain.
Nazi physician Carl Clauberg (at left), who performed medical experiments on prisoners in Block 10 of the Auschwitz camp. Poland, between 1941 and 1944.
Nazi physician Carl Clauberg, who performed medical experiments on prisoners in Block 10 of the Auschwitz camp. Place and date uncertain.
Victor Brack, one of the Nazi doctors on trial for having conducted medical experiments on concentration camp prisoners. Nuremberg, Germany, August 1947.
SS chief Heinrich Himmler (left) and Hans Frank, head of the Generalgouvernement in occupied Poland. Krakow, Poland, 1943.
Shimshon and Tova Draenger, members of the underground in the Kraków and Warsaw ghettos and partisans in the Wisnicz Forest. Krakow, Poland, date uncertain.
A group of Jewish partisans in the Rudniki forest, near Vilna, between 1942 and 1944.
Abba Kovner (center) poses with Ruska Korczak (left) and Vitka Kempner (right) on a street in Vilna the day of the city's liberation.
An assortment of antisemitic handbills, posters, and stickers from Germany, 1919.
Page from Der Giftpilz (The Poisonous Mushroom). This photograph shows a page from one of several antisemitic children's books published by Julius Streicher's Der Stürmer-Verlag, used for indoctrinating youth. The text reads, "The Jewish nose is crooked at its tip. It looks like the number 6."
View of barracks in the women's camp in the Auschwitz-Birkenau killing center in German-occupied Poland, 1944.
Witness Zivia Lubetkin Zuckerman testifies during the trial of Adolf Eichmann. Jerusalem, Israel. May 3, 1961.
Jewish partisan and poet Abba Kovner, a survivor of the Vilna ghetto, testifies during Adolf Eichmann's trial. Jerusalem, Israel, May 4, 1961.
During his trial, defendant Adolf Eichmann reads a chart outlining the administrative hierarchy of the German Third Reich. Jerusalem, Israel. June 27 1961.
Jewish forced laborers in the quarry of a forced-labor camp established by the Hungarian government. Tokaj, Hungary, 1940.
"Ostarbeiter" (eastern workers) were mostly eastern European women brought to Germany for forced labor. They wore an "OST" identification patch (lower center of photograph) Germany, after 1942.
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