Architect James Ingo Freed designed the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
The Germans and their collaborators used paper records and local knowledge to identify Jews to be rounded up or killed during the Holocaust.
The US Army Signal Corps had a crucial role in documenting—in both film and photographs—the atrocities perpetrated during the Holocaust.
The International Military Tribunal took place in the Palace of Justice at Nuremberg, the only undamaged facility extensive enough to house the trials.
A leading researcher of sex, sexuality, and gender, German Jewish doctor Magnus Hirschfeld was forced to live in exile after the Nazi rise to power.
View of the Hadamar Institute. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 7, 1945.
A newspaper clipping with the headline "Against the Un-German Spirit" announces the plundering of the Institute for Sexual Science. The photo shows students marching to the institute's entrance before the looting began on May 6, 1933. The institute's books and documents were among those targeted during the Nazi book burnings.
An American soldier stands guard in front of the Hadamar Institute. The photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.
Georg Grosz was a German artist of the Dada movement. His books, which had many of his best-known plates, were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
The Institute for Sexual Science was founded in Germany by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, a leading researcher of sex, sexuality, and gender. In 1933, the Nazis looted the institute and forced it to close. Photo published in 1924.
The Nuremberg trials were an early experiment in simultaneous translation. Learn about the principles and technology involved in translating the trial proceedings.
SS officer Kurt Gerstein was horrified by what he witnessed at the Belzec killing center. Learn about how he recorded what he witnessed and about his postwar fate.
At the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, a racial hygienist measures a woman's features in an attempt to determine her racial ancestry. Berlin, Germany, date uncertain.
Learn about conditions and forced labor in Dora-Mittelbau, the center of an extensive network of forced-labor camps for the production of V-2 missiles and other weapons.
Hermann Ludwig Maas, a Protestant pastor in Heidelberg, Germany, was a rescuer and clergyman who stood in solidarity with the Jewish community.
Historical events should be analyzed in their appropriate historical context. Learn how to assess the identify the quality, reliability, and integrity of a source.
Browse a timeline listing some key events in the evolution of Holocaust denial and the distortion of the facts of the Holocaust.
Under Adolf Hitler, the Nazi regime was responsible for the mass murder of 6 million Jews and millions of other victims. Learn about Hitler in the years 1924-1930.
Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi Party, aimed to eliminate Europe's Jews and other perceived enemies of Nazi Germany. Learn more.
The Nazi regime carried out a campaign against male homosexuality and persecuted gay men between 1933 and 1945.
Robert Ritter was a German doctor whose work helped drive the development of the Nazi regime’s anti-Romani policies of persecution and genocide.
Emanuel, often known by his nickname Manek, was one of five children born to religious Jewish parents in the industrial city of Lvov. After graduating from secondary school, he entered Lvov's polytechnic institute to study civil engineering. 1933-39: At the institute the Jewish students had to stand on the left side of the lecture hall. Once, antisemitic schoolmates broke his jaw because he put up a fight when he was insulted. Manek sued his attackers, but the case was dismissed; the judge said Manek…
The Nazis opened the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp in 1941. Learn more about the camp, its prisoners, and forced labor and medical experiments.
View of one of the mass graves at the Hadamar Institute. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.
View of the wall surrounding the cemetery of the Hadamar euthanasia killing center. Jagged pieces of glass were placed on the wall to discourage observers. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation of Hadamar. Germany, April 5, 1945.
John Dolibois immigrated to the United States in 1931 at the age of 13. After graduating from college, Dolibois joined the 16th Armored Division of the US Army. Due to his German language skills, he became involved in military intelligence. He returned to Europe in this capacity toward the end of World War II. Dolibois interrogated German prisoners of war, including leading Nazis, in preparation for the postwar trials of war criminals. He was later appointed US ambassador to Luxembourg, his birthplace.
Einsatzstab Rosenberg looted materials of Jewish culture like these books found stacked in the cellar of the Nazi Institute for the Investigation of the Jewish Question. Frankfurt am Main, Germany, July 6, 1945.
The Volkswagen automobile company went into military production during WWII, operating concentration and forced-labor camps. Learn more about its role.
Learn more about Iran during World War I and World War II.
Nazi Germany established the killing centers of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka as part of “Operation Reinhard,” the plan to murder all Jews in the General Government.
The Weimar Republic existed in Germany from 1918-1933. Learn more about German police during that time.
Ottoman military forces march Armenian men from Kharput to an execution site outside the city. Kharput, Ottoman Empire, March 1915-June 1915. [Courtesy of the Armenian National Institute.]
War crimes investigators interrogate chief nurse Irmgard Huber in connection with mass killings at the Hadamar Institute, one of main facilities in the Nazi Euthanasia Program. Hadamar, Germany, May 1945.
Jewish wedding in Morocco, 1942. Photo: US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of YIVO Institute for Jewish Research
Explore key events in the history of the Belzec killing center in the Nazi camp system. It was constructed for the sole purpose of murdering Jews.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Foehrenwald DP camp.
Emanuel Ringelblum was a Warsaw-based historian and social welfare worker before WWII. Learn about the secret archive he would establish in the Warsaw ghetto.
The European rail network played a crucial role in the implementation of the Final Solution. Millions were deported by rail to killing centers and other sites.
US radio and TV journalist Edward R. Murrow reported live from London during the Blitz; he also broadcast the first eyewitness account of the liberation of Buchenwald.
Dr. Mohamed Helmy and Frieda Szturmann helped save a Jewish family in the heart of Nazi Germany. Helmy was the first Arab recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Zeilsheim DP camp.
Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is the best known and most popular Nazi text ever published with over 12 million copies sold from 1925 to 1945.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of Nazi Germany during 1938.
Prominent SS physician Josef Mengele, called the "angel of death" by his victims, conducted inhumane medical experiments on prisoners in the Auschwitz camp.
Learn more about the Nazi exploitation of forced labor during World War II.
Learn more about the history of Stanisławów during the Holocaust and World War II.
The Moringen camp was one of the so-called youth protection camps that the Nazi regime established for young people who were alleged to have strayed from Nazi norms and ideals.
One of the ten metal boxes in which portions of the Oneg Shabbat archive were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The boxes are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. This view is of an open box without the lid.
Three of the ten metal boxes in which portions of the Oneg Shabbat archive were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The boxes are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. In this view the three boxes are stacked on top of one another. The box on top is displayed on its side without the lid.
One of the ten metal boxes in which portions of the Ringelblum Oneg Shabbat archives were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The boxes are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.