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A seven-day gold traveling clock in a leather case, manufactured in France and originally made for a Russian nobleman. The panel in the leather case slides open to reveal the clock face. The clock was a Szepsenwol family heirloom. It was acquired by Chaya Szepsenwol's grandfather, who like her father, was a jeweler. The clock was among the family valuables that Rikla Szepsenwol was able to take out of Poland. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
(Bottom) In a drawing dated April 18, 1942, Beifeld shows the school where the Hungarian Labor Service company 109/13 was quartered in Csobanka (Szentendre district), Hungary, before its departure for the Ukraine. A group of Hungarian soldiers [assigned to the labor service company] sits outside in the schoolyard. [Photograph #57947]
(top) "Watercolor entitled 'Partisan hotel and public house', Krassnolipia, Ukraine, until July 31, 1942"; (middle) "Drawing entitled 'The interrogation of partisans captured by our unit'"; (bottom) "Watercolor entitled 'My lodgings in Krassnolipia'" [Photograph #58040]
(Top and bottom) The image at the top shows Hungarian soldiers abandoning their trenches on the front lines as a Soviet tank overruns the barbed wire fortification separating the two armies. The drawing at the bottom captioned "Alarm," shows Hungarian soldiers running back and forth sounding the alarm of the Soviet counteroffensive. The drawings are dated Jan 11 and 13, 1943. [Photograph #58103]
An insert prepared for American soldiers. This diagram, published in the overseas edition of "Newsmap for the Armed Forces," explains the indictment against the Nuremberg defendants. 1945.
Boy Scout handmade badges worn by German-Jewish refugee boys. British expatriates had transplanted the Boy Scouts to Shanghai before the refugees' arrival. Unlike most of the Polish Jewish refugees, German and Austrian Jews usually went to Shanghai as families, and enrollment in schools and youth organizations in the International Settlement grew rapidly. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Carl Atkin was United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) director at the Deggendorf displaced persons camp. He received a songbook created by the survivors in his care. This page shows one of the songs compiled in the book.
March 14, 1938. On this date, Helen Baker documented what she witnessed when Germany annexed Austria. Helen and her husband Ross Baker were Americans living in Vienna.
May 29, 1938. On this date, Hungary adopted comprehensive anti-Jewish laws, excluding many Jews from professional work.
August 15, 1941. On this date, German authorities sealed approximately 30,000 Jews in the Kovno ghetto in Lithuania.
March 17, 2006. On this date, Thomas Lubanga became the first person arrested under an International Criminal Court (ICC) warrant.
July 11, 1995. On this date, the Srebrenica massacre began. Bosnian Serb forces captured the town and killed approximately 8,000 Bosnian Muslims.
May 25, 1993. On this date, the United Nations Security Council created the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ITCY).
November 21, 1995. On this date, the three-year civil war in Bosnia-Herzegovina ended with a peace agreement negotiated in Dayton, Ohio.
Yiddish folk poet and songwriter Mordecai Gebirtig was born in Krakow, Poland, in 1877. In 1940, he was forced to flee from German-occupied Krakow to nearby Lagiewniki. There, in May 1941, he wrote "My Dream"—in which he dreams of peace and revenge. In March 1942 Gebirtig was forced into the Krakow ghetto, where he was killed in June 1942.
Browse a series of articles describing how some Jews survived the Holocaust; rescue efforts; anti-Nazi resistance groups; and revolts against Nazi oppression in the Warsaw ghetto and in killing centers.
Otto Wolf (1927-1945) was a Czech Jewish teenager who chronicled his family's experience living in hiding in rural Moravia during World War II. His diary was published posthumously. This image shows book 4 of Otto Wolf's diary. This is the first entry by Felicitas Garda (Otto Wolf's sister) dated April 17, 1945. Felicitas continued Otto's diary after his disappearance.
Père Jacques de Jésus (born Lucien Bunel) was a Carmelite headmaster of a Catholic boys school in Avon, France. Angered at Nazi policies, he made his school a refuge for young men seeking to avoid forced labor and for Jews. On January 15, 1944, the Gestapo raided the school, seizing Père Jacques and three Jewish children. The boys were deported to Auschwitz and killed. Père Jacques, sent to various concentration camps, died shortly after liberation.
A pair of shoes left behind after a deportation action in the Kovno ghetto. Photographer George Kadish captioned the photo "The body is gone." Kovno, Lithuania, circa 1943.
Adolf Hitler (front row, far left) served on the western front in World War I and during the course of the war was twice decorated for service, wounded, and temporarily blinded in a mustard gas attack. He used his veteran status in later election campaigns.
Elie Wiesel (right) with his wife and son during the Faith in Humankind conference, held several years before the opening of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. September 18–19, 1984, in Washington, DC.
A billboard advertising an anti-Masonic exhibition organized by the anti-Masonic Belgian league, "L'Epuration," in the Masonic Supreme Council building. Brussels. Belgium, 1941. As part of their propaganda campaign against Freemasonry, the Nazis and other local right-wing organizations mounted anti-Masonic exhibitions throughout occupied Europe. German-occupied Paris hosted an anti-Masonic exhibition in October 1940, as did German-occupied Brussels in February 1941.
The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee helped to locate relatives of Blanka's who lived in the United States. Blanka crossed the Atlantic Ocean in the winter on the SS Marine Marlin, a troop transporter. The trip took over two weeks during storms and rough seas. The ship was damaged, and Blanka, along with the other refugees traveling in the lowest quarters, had to walk in water for days. This photograph shows Blanka's embarkation card for the SS Marine Marlin, with a sailing date in January…
Aron in Teaneck, New Jersey, in the early 1970s. This photograph was taken by Hyman Alpert, known as "Trigger." Alpert, a cousin of Aron's, was a musician with the Glenn Miller Orchestra. Alpert went on to become a photographer in Teaneck.
Polish-Jewish refugees seeking to leave Europe arrive in Lisbon. Following the German invasion of France, Jewish and non-Jewish refugee assistance organizations relocated their headquarters to Lisbon, the only neutral European port from which refugees could depart to North and South America. Lisbon, Portugal, June 21-22, 1940.
Benjamin Meed (right) and Harvey Meyerhoff stand next to the cornerstone for the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. In October 1988, President Ronald Reagan spoke at a special ceremony held when the cornerstone of the Museum was laid, with construction beginning in July 1989 and ending in April 1993. Washington, DC, 1988.
Group portrait of teenage boys in the Lodz ghetto. Dawid Sierakowiak is in the 3rd row, 4th from right. Dawid kept a diary from before the war where he meticulously noted not only events but also his own feelings, moods, and opinions. Dawid was an avid reader and an excellent observer.
Quotation from Martin Niemöller on display in the Permanent Exhibition of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Niemöller was a Lutheran minister and early Nazi supporter who was later imprisoned in the camp system for opposing Hitler's regime. First they came for the Socialists, and I did not speak out-Because I was not a Socialist.Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I did not speak out-Because I was not a Trade Unionist.Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out-Because I was…
SS chief Heinrich Himmler (front row, left) and Mauthausen commandant Franz Ziereis (second from left) inspect inspect the Wiener Graben quarry during an official tour of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Austria, April 27, 1941.
Henry Morgenthau, Jr., treasury secretary in the Roosevelt administration and later chairman of the United Jewish Appeal, greets Jewish refugees en route from Shanghai to Israel. New York, United States, March 2, 1949.
Rozalia (Krysia Laks) Lerman, Miles Lerman, and Regina Laks stand on the deck of the Marine Perch while en route to the United States. January 1947.
Postcard of a pension (a small hotel) in Le Chambon which served as a refugee home for children sheltered from the Nazis. Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France, date uncertain.
Group of Jewish children who were sheltered in the children's home Maison des Roches, which was directed by Daniel Trocme (back, center, with glasses). Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France, between 1941 and 1943.
Recently appointed as German chancellor, Adolf Hitler greets President Paul von Hindenburg in Potsdam, Germany, on March 21, 1933. This pose was designed to project an image of Hitler as non-threatening to the established order. This particular image is from a popular postcard. The photo also appeared widely in both the German and international press. Hitler appears in civilian dress, bowing in deference to the heavily decorated von Hindenburg. The March 5, 1933, elections had conferred legitimacy on…
Nazi Storm Troopers (SA) block the entrance to a trade union building that they have occupied. SA detachments occupied union offices nationwide, forcing the dissolution of the unions. Berlin, Germany, May 2, 1933.
A crowd of saluting Germans surrounds Adolf Hitler's car as he leaves the Reich Chancellery following a meeting with President Paul von Hindenburg. Berlin, Germany, November 19, 1932.
This photograph shows Julius Wolff, a young Jewish man, and Christine Neemann, his non-Jewish fiancé, standing between two police officers in Norden, Germany. Local SA men had accosted the couple and led them through the streets. The parade was meant to mock and humiliate the couple. Wolff wears a sign that reads: "I am a race defiler" ("Ich bin ein Rasseschänder"). Other photographs of this event show, and Neemann's testimony confirms, that Neemann was also forced to wear a sign. Neemann and Wolff…
An antisemitic poster published in German-occupied Poland in March 1941. The caption reads, "Jews are lice; They cause typhus." This German-published propaganda poster was intended to instill fear of Jews among Christian Poles.
Klara Taussig and Ernst Brecher go on an outing in the Austrian countryside before their marriage. They later had a son, Heinz, who was born on August 29, 1932 in Graz, Austria. where his father was a merchant. After the Germans annexed Austria in 1938, Klara and Ernst sent Heinz to live with friends of an aunt in Zagreb. Heinz survived and eventually came to the United States on the Henry Gibbins, a military troop transport. Klara and Ernst died in the concentration camps. Photograph taken…
An African-American soldier with the 12th Armored Division, Seventh U.S. Army, stands guard ov...
Adolf Hitler stands with an SA unit during a Nazi parade in Weimar, where the constitution of the Weimar Republic was drafted in 1919. Weimar, Germany, 1931.
Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Schirach speaking at the opening of the Reich Academy for Youth Leadership. Braunschweig, Germany, June 4, 1938.
Followed closely by an SS bodyguard, Adolf Hitler greets supporters at the fourth Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. Germany, August 1929. US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of William O. McWorkman
Identification card issued to Oskar Russ in the Feldafing displaced persons' camp. Oskar Russ was born in Poland in 1907. During the Holocaust, he was imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp. After liberation, he was in the Feldafing displaced persons camp before immigrating in 1947 to the United States with his wife (whom he had married in Feldafing).
Salek Liwer (center) with friends at a Dror Zionist youth movement seminar in the Bad Gastein displaced persons camp in Austria, 1946.
This report card was issued to Regina Laks, a fifth-grade student at the Herzel Hebrew Public School at the Düppel Center displaced persons camp.
Group portrait of Jewish displaced persons (DPs) in the Leipheim DP camp. From left to right are an unidentified couple, Rubin Kaplan, Zalman Kaplan (cousin), Dwora (cousin) and her husband Eli Flaks, and their infant, Pearl.
Jewish displaced persons (DPs) converse on the streets of the Neu Freimann DP camp, circa 1946–1948.The photographer, Jack Sutin, lived at the camp with his family and worked as a camp administrator and photojournalist.
Jewish displaced persons (DPs) pose outside of a barracks in the Bari Transit DP camp in Italy. Among those pictured are Izidor and Tauba Schachter with their baby Miriam Schachter (now Enright), on the far right, and Etta Gipsman, on the far left.
Two women and a child stand with metal bowls in front of a soup kitchen in the Cremona displaced persons (DP) camp in Italy, 1945. Pictured are Zelda Leikach and her daughter, Masha, with their friend Hinda.
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