To implement their policies, the Nazis had help from individuals across Europe, including professionals in many fields. Learn about the role of the German police.
The Wannsee Protocol documents the 1942 Wannsee Conference participants and indicates their agreement to collaborate on a continental scale in the Final Solution.
On November 9–10, 1938, the Nazi regime coordinated a wave of antisemitic violence in Nazi Germany. This became known as Kristallnacht or the "Night of Broken Glass."
The Nazi Party targeted German youth as a special audience for its propaganda messages. Read more about the indoctrination of youth.
During WWII, the Children’s Aid Society (OSE) operated 14 children's homes throughout France to save Jewish children from internment and deportation to killing centers.
The Nazi regime’s Nuremberg Race Laws of September 1935 made Jews legally different from their non-Jewish neighbors. The laws were the foundation for future antisemitic measures .
World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945, when the Allies defeated the Axis powers. Learn about key invasions and events during WWII, also known as the Second World War.
Hitler rose to power during a time of economic and political instability in Germany. Learn more about how and when Hitler came to power.
In the spring of 1939, Gilbert and Eleanor Kraus rescued 50 Jewish children from Vienna, Austria, by bringing them to the United States. Learn about their mission.
After WWII and the fall of the Nazi regime, Holocaust survivors faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. Listen to Aron and Lisa Derman's story.
Ghettos separating Jews from the rest of the population were part of the Nazi plan to destroy Europe's Jews. Learn about three types of ghettos: closed, open, and destruction.
German Jews trying to immigrate to the US in the late 1930s met extreme bureaucratic hurdles, including documentation that was often virtually impossible to obtain.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1937.
Jack London was an American author who wrote “The Call of the Wild.” His socialist leaning works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
At the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, Allied leaders negotiated terms for the end of WWII in Europe. This included establishing Poland’s new postwar borders. Learn more.
The 12th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating a subcamp of Dachau in 1945.
In months of fighting with heavy losses, the US Army attempted to pierce the heavily fortified Hürtgen Forest section of Germany's border defenses. Learn more about the campaign.
American military tribunals presided over 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
The Allied powers made major modifications to the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg to accommodate the postwar International Military Tribunal. See photos and read more.
Antisemitism (hatred of Jews) predominated in Nazi ideology. The Nazis built upon centuries of anti-Jewish sentiment. Learn about antisemitism in Nazi ideology.
The White Rose, led by students including Hans and Sophie Scholl, was an anti-Nazi group during WWII. Its members spread leaflets denouncing the regime.
Learn more about Rome, Italy during the German occupation between 1943-1944.
Friedrich Engels was a philosopher and political economist. He co-authored communist and socialist books with Karl Marx. His work was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
Japan’s aerial attack on Pearl Harbor changed many Americans' attitudes toward involvement in WWII. Learn more about the events, facts, and background info.
Some individuals and groups in Germany attempted to resist Nazism, despite the risk of being caught and facing punishment. Learn more about their efforts.
Under the Nazis, Jewish and other “non-Aryan” women were often subjected to brutal persecution. Learn more about the plight of women during the Holocaust.
Adolf Hitler came to power with the goal of establishing a new racial order in Europe dominated by the German “master race.” This goal drove Nazi foreign policy. Learn more
Despite the Nazi Party's ideology of keeping women in the home, their roles expanded beyond wives and mothers.
Nazi Germany occupied Hungary in March 1944. Learn about the experiences and fate of Jews in Budapest, Hungary's capital, before and after the occupation.
Towards the end of 1940, Hungary joined the Axis powers and invaded Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. Learn more about Hungary before the German occupation.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Landsberg DP camp.
Artist Esther Lurie documented life in the Kovno ghetto for its secret archives. Learn about her watercolors and sketches, the majority of which have never been found.
How did the United States respond to the Holocaust and World War II? Start learning today.
Some Jews who managed to escape from ghettos and camps formed their own fighting, or partisan, units during World War II. Learn about life as a partisan.
Leni Riefenstahl was a German dancer, actress, and film director best known for her imposing propaganda films in support of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party.
The Danish resistance movement, assisted by many ordinary citizens, coordinated the flight of some 7,200 Jews to safety in nearby neutral Sweden. Learn more about rescue in Denmark.
Ghettos separating Jews from the rest of the population were part of the Nazi plan to destroy Europe's Jews. Read about ghettoization during the Holocaust.
Corpses of victims of the Gunskirchen subcamp of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Austria, after May 5, 1945.
Key dates in the life of Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Security Main Office, the SS and police agency most directly concerned with implementing Final Solution.
The voyage of the St. Louis, a German ocean liner, dramatically highlights the difficulties faced by many people trying to escape Nazi terror. Learn more.
Heinrich Mann was an author and early target of the Nazis for his political views. His writings were among those burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
As Germany conquered much of Europe, the concentration camp system expanded in size, function, and number of prisoners. Learn about concentration camps from 1939–1942.
Songs, verses, and writings of writers and poets in the ghettos reflect efforts to preserve culture, humanity, and documentation, as well as acts of defiance. Explore examples.
Learn about the fate of Sephardi Jewish communities during the Holocaust. On the eve of WWII, Europe's Sephardi Jews lived mostly in the Balkan countries.
Lion Feuchtwanger was a bestselling German Jewish author who was persecuted under the Nazi regime. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933.
The 99th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating subcamps of the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.
At the Kaufering complex, part of the Dachau camp system, prisoners were forced to labor under brutal conditions to build underground facilities for German fighter aircraft production.
The Ministries Case was Case #11 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
Learn about trends that developed during and immediately after WWI that brought antisemitism, including its racist variant, into the mainstream of European politics.
The German Foreign Office played an integral role in Nazi anti-Jewish policies and the Holocaust. Learn more about the office's responsibilities during that time.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.