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Anna Gutman (Boros) (left) and her daughter, Carla (second from left), visit with Dr. Mohamed Helmy (second from right) and his wife, Emmi (right), in Berlin in 1968. Dr. Helmy hid Gutman in his home for the duration of World War II.
Anna Gutman (Boros) (seated, center), her daughter, and son-in-law visit Dr. Mohamed Helmy (seated, left) and his wife, Emmi (seated, right), in Berlin in 1980. Dr. Helmy hid Gutman in his home for the duration of World War II.
Japanese Americans wait in line to register with the War Relocation Authority, San Francisco, California, April 1942. A government agency, the War Relocation Authority was tasked with removing “enemy aliens” from designated zones. Local authorities on the West Coast forced all “persons of Japanese ancestry” to register. They were then deported, first to temporary “assembly centers” and from there to relocation centers.
The most notorious of the 189 known interrogation centers in Cambodia was S-21, housed in a former school and now called Tuol Sleng for the hill on which it stands. Between 14,000 and 17,000 prisoners were detained there, often in primitive brick cells built in former classrooms. Only 12 prisoners are believed to have survived.
Michael Fink and his parents Manfred and Herta in the Westerbork camp, 1941–1944. Westerbork's primary role was as a transit camp. However, there was also a long-term camp population there. The Finks were among these residents. The family was in Westerbork until the spring of 1944, when they were deported to Theresienstadt. Michael and Herta survived, but Manfred was killed after being deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau and other concentration camps.
Adolf Hitler salutes a passing SS formation at the third Nazi Party Congress in 1927. Nuremberg, Germany, August 1927. The SS (Schutzstaffel, or Protection Squads) was originally established as Adolf Hitler’s personal bodyguard unit. It would later become both the elite guard of the Nazi Reich and Hitler’s executive force prepared to carry out all security-related duties, without regard for legal restraint.
An SS guard speaks with local Ukrainian women while Soviet prisoners of war carry out forced labor. A German Propaganda Company photographer took this image shortly after the SS murdered over 33,000 Jews on September 29-30,1941 at the nearby Babyn Yar killing site. Kyiv (Kiev), German-occupied Soviet Union, after September 30, 1941.
Ukrainian Jews who were forced to undress before they were massacred by Einsatzgruppe detachments. This photo, originally in color, was part of a series taken by a German military photographer. Copies from this collection were later used as evidence in war crimes trials. Lubny, Soviet Union, October 16, 1941.
Quotation from Martin Niemöller on display in the Permanent Exhibition of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Niemöller was a Lutheran minister and early Nazi supporter who was later imprisoned in the camp system for opposing Hitler's regime. First they came for the Socialists, and I did not speak out-Because I was not a Socialist.Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I did not speak out-Because I was not a Trade Unionist.Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out-Because I was…
Selmar and Elsa Biener joined the waiting list for US immigration visas in September 1938. Their waiting list numbers—45,685 and 45,686—indicate the number of people who had registered with the US consulate in Berlin. By September 1938, approximately 220,000 people throughout Germany, mostly Jews, were on the waiting list.
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