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  • Eichmann: Trial as National Catharsis - Photographs

    Media Essay

    After World War II, Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann escaped US custody and fled to Argentina. He was caught by Israeli agents in 1960 and tried in Israel. For his pivotol role in the Holocaust, Eichmann was convicted and sentenced to death. Many historians credit coverage of the Eichmann trial with awakening public interest in the Holocaust.

  • Stutthof - ID Cards/Oral Histories

    Media Essay

    Stutthof began as a civilian internment camp under the Danzig police chief and then became a "labor education" camp under the German Security Police. In January 1942, Stutthof became a regular concentration camp. Stutthof prisoners were used as fo...

  • Eva Heyman: Maps

    Media Essay

    Eva was born to Jewish parents and grew up in a city on the border between Romania and Hungary. On March 19, 1944, the Germans occupied Hungary and Eva was soon forced into a ghetto. She was later deported to Auschwitz, where she was killed at the a...

  • Chuna Grynbaum: Maps

    Media Essay

    Chuna Grynbaum was born to Jewish parents in Starachowice, Poland in 1928. When he was 13 years old, Chuna was sent to forced labor at a munitions factory. In 1943, he attempted to escape with his sister, Faiga. Faiga...

  • Zigmond Adler: Maps

    Media Essay

    Zigmond Adler was three years old when Germany occupied Belgium in May 1940. Zigmond, whose mother was deceased, went to live with his aunt and uncle after the Germans deported his father. With the help of Catholic friends, Zigmond and his relativ...

  • Ruth Freund Reiser: Maps

    Media Essay

    Ruth Freund Reiser was born to Jewish parents in Prague, Czechoslovakia. She was 13 years old when Germany occupied Prague in March 1939. Five years later, Ruth was deported from the Theresienstadt ghetto to Auschwitz. She was later deported to th...

  • Rémy Dumoncel: Maps

    Media Essay

    Remy Dumoncel was born to Catholic parents in Paris, France. In 1935, he became the mayor of Avon, a town southeast of Paris. Germany occupied Avon after defeating France in June 1940. Remy resolved to remain mayor. He became active in a resistanc...

  • Family cookbook: Saved and returned

    Media Essay

    Klári Fenyves created a family cookbook, written in Hungarian. After the family was forced to leave their apartment before deportation, the family’s cook, Maris, saved this treasured cookbook and some of Klári Fenyves’ artwork. She returned the artw...

    Family cookbook: Saved and returned
  • Cookbook created in the Ravensbrück camp

    Media Essay

    Cookbooks were created and recipes recorded under the most dire of circumstances--in hiding or secretly in camps and ghettos by people who were starving or suffering from malnutrition. This page comes from a cookbook Eva Oswalt created while impri...

    Cookbook created in the Ravensbrück camp
  • Hitler tours Paris

    Film

    One day after France signed an armistice with Germany in June 1940, Adolf Hitler celebrated the German victory over France with a tour of Paris. Here, Hitler's train arrives in Paris. Hitler's tour included the Paris opera, the Champs-Elysees, the Arc de Triomphe, and the Eiffel Tower. After visiting Napoleon's tomb and the Sacre Coeur, Hitler left Paris. In all, Hitler spent about three hours in the city. In July, Hitler returned in triumph to Berlin, Germany.

    Hitler tours Paris
  • Hitler campaign speech

    Film

    Nazi supporters parade at a campaign rally in Waldenburg, Germany. In a speech, Hitler attacks the Weimar Republic and pledges to dissolve the parliamentary system soon after he gains power.

    Hitler campaign speech
  • German presence in Copenhagen, Denmark

    Film

    Denmark signed a nonaggression pact with Germany in 1939, hoping to maintain neutrality as it had in World War I. Germany, however, broke the agreement on April 9, 1940, when it occupied Denmark. King Christian X remained on the throne, and the Danish police and government reluctantly accepted the German occupation. This footage shows the German presence in the occupied Danish capital, Copenhagen. In 1943, as German policies towards Denmark toughened, the Danes would form one of the most active and…

    German presence in Copenhagen, Denmark
  • A vandalized synagogue serves as a warehouse for articles plundered from Jewish homes

    Photo

    Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Hungarian authorities in Novi Sad began confiscating property from Jewish families. The city's synagogue served as a warehouse for the stolen goods.

    A vandalized synagogue serves as a warehouse for articles plundered from Jewish homes
  • Isadore Helfing describes labor in the Treblinka camp

    Oral History

    Isadore was born to a Jewish family in Kielce, Poland. Germany invaded Poland in September 1939. Isadore and his family were forced into the Kielce ghetto, which was established in April 1941. When his parents were deported to the Treblinka killing center in 1942, Isadore went with them rather than remaining behind for forced labor. After arrival at the camp, Isadore hid in a pile of bodies. His parents were killed. Isadore survived by working in the camp. On August 2, 1943, prisoners at Treblinka revolted…

    Tags: Treblinka
    Isadore Helfing describes labor in the Treblinka camp
  • Frima L. describes surviving as a young child on her own

    Oral History

    While Frima's family was confined to a ghetto, Nazis used her father as an interpreter. He later perished. By pretending not to be Jews, Frima, her mother, and sister escaped a German mobile killing unit massacre. They were later discovered and jailed. Again, her mother devised an escape. Frima's mother and sister were smuggled to Romania, while Frima wandered in search of safekeeping until her mother could arrange to smuggle her out. In Romania, they were reunited and liberated.

    Tags: children
    Frima L. describes surviving as a young child on her own
  • Elizabeth Kaufmann Koenig describes her family's attempt to flee Austria before the war

    Oral History

    Elizabeth and her family were in Paris when war began. As the Germans advanced in 1940, she and her mother fled southward. Elizabeth eventually reached Le Chambon, where she helped care for children sheltered by the town's pastor, Andre Trocme, and his wife. In late 1941 her father was among 1,000 intellectuals who received special US visas from President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The family escaped from France in 1942 on one of the last passenger ships to cross the Atlantic during the war.

    Tags: Austria escape
    Elizabeth Kaufmann Koenig describes her family's attempt to flee Austria before the war
  • Mieczyslaw Madejski describes battle during the Warsaw Polish uprising

    Oral History

    Mieczyslaw and his family were not Jewish. When Germany invaded Poland, Mieczyslaw was working for an organization formed for self-defense against German bombings. Later, he worked for the Polish underground group ZWZ (Zwiazek Walki Zbrojnej; Union for Armed Struggle), which became the AK (Armia Krajowa; Home Army). In 1943, he was conscripted for forced labor at a BMW plant in Warsaw. He escaped, and participated in the Warsaw Polish uprising in August 1944. After the uprising, he left Warsaw and went…

    Mieczyslaw Madejski describes battle during the Warsaw Polish uprising
  • Leo Schneiderman describes conditions on a freight car during deportation from Lodz to Auschwitz

    Oral History

    The Germans invaded Poland in September 1939. Leo and his family were confined to a ghetto in Lodz. Leo was forced to work as a tailor in a uniform factory. The Lodz ghetto was liquidated in 1944, and Leo was deported to Auschwitz. He was then sent to the Gross-Rosen camp system for forced labor. As the Soviet army advanced, the prisoners were transferred to the Ebensee camp in Austria. The Ebensee camp was liberated in 1945.

    Leo Schneiderman describes conditions on a freight car during deportation from Lodz to Auschwitz
  • Barbara Marton Farkas describes deportation from Hungary to Auschwitz

    Oral History

    Barbara was born in the province of Arad in northern Transylvania, Romania. She went to school until the Hungarian army occupied the area in 1940 and she was no longer allowed to attend. After the Germans occupied Hungary in 1944, discrimination against Jews intensified. Barbara and her family were forced into the Oradea ghetto. She worked in the ghetto hospital until she was deported to the Auschwitz camp. At Auschwitz, she worked in the kitchens to receive extra food. She was deported to another camp,…

    Barbara Marton Farkas describes deportation from Hungary to Auschwitz
  • Julian Noga describes conditions in Flossenbürg

    Oral History

    Julian's Catholic parents had settled in the United States, but his mother returned to Poland. In 1939, Julian was deported to Austria to do farm labor after he was caught for hiding a rifle. On the farm he met the landowner's daughter, Frieda, his future wife. He was arrested in 1941 because relationships between Austrians and Poles were considered illegal and in 1942 he was deported to the Flossenbürg camp in Germany. During a forced march in 1945, he was liberated by US forces. Julian and Freida…

    Tags: Flossenbürg
    Julian Noga describes conditions in Flossenbürg
  • Ruth Berkowicz Segal describes finding her father in Vilna after he fled Soviet-occupied eastern Poland

    Oral History

    When German forces invaded Poland in September 1939, Ruth's father fled to eastern Poland. Upon the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland, he fled to Lithuania. Ruth left Warsaw with two friends to find her father and later joined him in Vilna. After Soviet forces occupied Lithuania, Ruth and her father obtained transit visas for Japan, but only Ruth obtained a Soviet exit visa. Her father insisted she leave and not wait for him. Ruth traveled by the Trans-Siberian Railroad across the Soviet Union to…

    Tags: Vilna
    Ruth Berkowicz Segal describes finding her father in Vilna after he fled Soviet-occupied eastern Poland
  • Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding

    Artifact

    These tiny black, white, gold, and clear glass beads were used by Rachel “Chelly” de Groot from November 1942 to April 1944 and recovered by her brother Louis after the war. Chelly used the beads to make handicrafts. On November 16, 1942, Chelly, then 15, Louis, 13, and their parents Meijer and Sophia left Arnhem and went into hiding after the Dutch police warned them of a raid. Meijer and Sophia hid in Amsterdam while Chelly and Louis moved around to different locations. In summer or fall 1943,…

    Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding
  • Gucia Grosfeld Frydmacher

    ID Card

    Gucia was born to middle-class Jewish parents in Radom, an industrial city known for its armaments factory, in which Jews were not allowed to work, and for a leather industry, in which many Jews were employed. Radom had a large and active Jewish community, and at home Gucia's family spoke both Polish and Yiddish. Gucia completed her schooling in Radom. 1933-39: As a young woman, Gucia was introduced to Benjamin Frydmacher, a young Jewish tanner from Lublin who occasionally came to Radom to visit his…

    Gucia Grosfeld Frydmacher
  • Blimcia Lische

    ID Card

    Blimcia's parents were religious Jews. Her father, Shaya David, and her mother, Malcia Saleschtz, had settled in Kolbuszowa, where Blimcia's mother had been raised. There, Malcia's father bought the newlyweds a home and started his new son-in-law in the wholesale flour business. 1933-39: Blimcia was born in 1938, and was raised among many aunts, uncles and cousins. Around Blimcia's first birthday, Germany invaded Poland and soon reached Kolbuszowa. Polish soldiers on horses tried to fight against the…

    Blimcia Lische
  • Robert T. Odeman

    ID Card

    Born Martin Hoyer, Robert took Robert T. Odeman as his stage name when he began a professional career as an actor and musician. A classical pianist, Robert gave concerts throughout Europe, but a hand injury tragically ended his concert career. 1933-39: In 1935 Robert opened a cabaret in Hamburg. One year later the Nazis shut it down, charging that it was politically subversive. Robert then moved to Berlin where he developed a close relationship with a male friend who was pressured to denounce Robert to…

    Robert T. Odeman

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