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  • Emanuel Litwak

    ID Card

    Emanuel, often known by his nickname Manek, was one of five children born to religious Jewish parents in the industrial city of Lvov. After graduating from secondary school, he entered Lvov's polytechnic institute to study civil engineering. 1933-39: At the institute the Jewish students had to stand on the left side of the lecture hall. Once, antisemitic schoolmates broke his jaw because he put up a fight when he was insulted. Manek sued his attackers, but the case was dismissed; the judge said Manek…

    Tags: Lvov Poland
    Emanuel Litwak
  • Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi.

    Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi
  • Magnus Hirschfeld

    Article

    A leading researcher of sex, sexuality, and gender, German Jewish doctor Magnus Hirschfeld was forced to live in exile after the Nazi rise to power.

    Magnus Hirschfeld
  • The Institute for Sexual Science

    Photo

    The Institute for Sexual Science was founded in Germany by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, a leading researcher of sex, sexuality, and gender. In 1933, the Nazis looted the institute and forced it to close. Photo published in 1924.

    The Institute for Sexual Science
  • An American soldier stands guard in front of the Hadamar Institute

    Photo

    An American soldier stands guard in front of the Hadamar Institute. The photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.

    An American soldier stands guard in front of the Hadamar Institute
  • View of the Hadamar Institute

    Photo

    View of the Hadamar Institute. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 7, 1945.

    View of the Hadamar Institute
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics

    Photo

    At the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, a racial hygienist measures a woman's features in an attempt to determine her racial ancestry. Berlin, Germany, date uncertain.

    Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics
  • Plundering of the Institute for Sexual Science

    Photo

    A newspaper clipping with the headline "Against the Un-German Spirit" announces the plundering of the Institute for Sexual Science. The photo shows students marching to the institute's entrance before the looting began on May 6, 1933. The institute's books and documents were among those targeted during the Nazi book burnings. 

    Plundering of the Institute for Sexual Science
  • James Ingo Freed: Architect of the Museum

    Article

    Architect James Ingo Freed designed the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    James Ingo Freed: Architect of the Museum
  • Kurt Gerstein

    Article

    German SS officer Kurt Gerstein was assigned to the Hygiene Institute of the Waffen SS. He was called upon to assist in the implementation of the "Final Solution." After witnessing atrocities at the Belzec and Treblinka killing centers, he tried to inform foreign diplomats, Vatican officials, and members of the political resistance within Germany about Nazi German atrocities. While in Allied custody after the war, Gerstein wrote a report documenting the atrocities he had witnessed. 

  • Holocaust Denial: Key Dates

    Article

    Browse a timeline listing some key events in the evolution of Holocaust denial and the distortion of the facts of the Holocaust.

  • Gay Men under the Nazi Regime

    Article

    The Nazi regime carried out a campaign against male homosexuality and persecuted gay men between 1933 and 1945.

    Gay Men under the Nazi Regime
  • Robert Ritter

    Article

    Robert Ritter was a German doctor whose work helped drive the development of the Nazi regime’s anti-Romani policies of persecution and genocide.

  • War crimes investigators interrogate Irmgard Huber

    Photo

    War crimes investigators interrogate chief nurse Irmgard Huber in connection with mass killings at the Hadamar Institute, one of main facilities in the Nazi Euthanasia Program. Hadamar, Germany, May 1945.

    War crimes investigators interrogate Irmgard Huber
  • A Jewish wedding in Morocco

    Photo

    Jewish wedding in Morocco, 1942. Photo: US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of YIVO Institute for Jewish Research

    Tags: North Africa
    A Jewish wedding in Morocco
  • Ottoman military forces march Armenians to an execution site

    Photo

    Ottoman military forces march Armenian men from Kharput to an execution site outside the city. Kharput, Ottoman Empire, March 1915-June 1915. [Courtesy of the Armenian National Institute.]

    Ottoman military forces march Armenians to an execution site
  • Wall surrounding the cemetery at Hadamar

    Photo

    View of the wall surrounding the cemetery of the Hadamar euthanasia killing center. Jagged pieces of glass were placed on the wall to discourage observers. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation of Hadamar. Germany, April 5, 1945.

    Wall surrounding the cemetery at Hadamar
  • View of one of the mass graves at Hadamar

    Photo

    View of one of the mass graves at the Hadamar Institute. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.

    View of one of the mass graves at Hadamar
  • Looted Jewish cultural materials

    Photo

    Einsatzstab Rosenberg looted materials of Jewish culture like these books found stacked in the cellar of the Nazi Institute for the Investigation of the Jewish Question. Frankfurt am Main, Germany, July 6, 1945.

    Looted Jewish cultural materials
  • Establishing racial descent

    Photo

    Establishing racial descent by measuring an ear at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology. Germany, date uncertain.

    Tags: racism
    Establishing racial descent
  • Natzweiler-Struthof

    Article

    Establishment of the Camp The Germans established the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp near the town of Natzweiler, about 31 miles southwest of Strasbourg, the capital of the province of Alsace (in eastern France). It was one of the smaller concentration camps built by the Germans. Until construction was completed in May 1941, prisoners slept in the nearby former Hotel Struthof, hence the name Natzweiler-Struthof. The camp held about 1,500 prisoners. Prisoners worked in nearby granite quarries, in…

    Tags: camps
    Natzweiler-Struthof
  • Esther Lurie in Brussels

    Photo

    Photograph of Esther Lurie and a friend, Jose, who were both students at the Institute of Art in Brussels. Here they are enjoying refreshments on an outdoor terrace in the early 1930s. Lurie would later flee Europe as war became imminent. Brussels, Belgium, 1931–1933. 

    Esther Lurie in Brussels
  • John Dolibois describes translating for a prison psychiatrist

    Oral History

    John Dolibois immigrated to the United States in 1931 at the age of 13. After graduating from college, Dolibois joined the 16th Armored Division of the US Army. Due to his German language skills, he became involved in military intelligence. He returned to Europe in this capacity toward the end of World War II. Dolibois interrogated German prisoners of war, including leading Nazis, in preparation for the postwar trials of war criminals. He was later appointed US ambassador to Luxembourg, his birthplace.

    John Dolibois describes translating for a prison psychiatrist
  • Josef Mengele

    Article

    Prominent SS physician Josef Mengele, called the "Angel of Death" by his victims, conducted inhumane medical experiments on prisoners in the Auschwitz camp.

    Josef Mengele
  • Metal box used to hide contents of the Oneg Shabbat archives

    Artifact

    One of the ten metal boxes in which portions of the Ringelblum Oneg Shabbat archives were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The boxes are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.

    Metal box used to hide contents of the Oneg Shabbat archives
  • Milk can that held part of the Oneg Shabbat archive

    Artifact

    One of the two milk cans in which portions of the Ringelblum Oneg Shabbat archives were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The milk cans are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.

    Milk can that held part of the Oneg Shabbat archive
  • Metal box that held contents of the Oneg Shabbat archive

    Artifact

    One of the ten metal boxes in which portions of the Oneg Shabbat archive were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The boxes are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. This view is of an open box without the lid.  

    Metal box that held contents of the Oneg Shabbat archive
  • Three metal boxes used to hold content of the Oneg Shabbat archive

    Artifact

    Three of the ten metal boxes in which portions of the Oneg Shabbat archive were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The boxes are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. In this view the three boxes are stacked on top of one another. The box on top is displayed on its side without the lid.

    Three metal boxes used to hold content of the Oneg Shabbat archive
  • "What shall be done with the war criminals?"

    Artifact

    Cover of booklet titled "What Shall Be Done with the War Criminals?" Published by the United States Armed Forces Institute, this was one of a series of 42 pamphlets created by the U.S. War Department under the series title "G.I. Roundtable." From 1943-1945, these pamphlets were created to "increase the effectiveness of the soldiers and officers and fighters during the war and as citizens after the war." Many of the pamphlets addressed the possibilities of a postwar world.

    "What shall be done with the war criminals?"
  • Emanuel Ringelblum and the Creation of the Oneg Shabbat Archive

    Article

    Emanuel Ringelblum was a Warsaw-based historian and social welfare worker before WWII. Learn about the secret archive he would establish in the Warsaw ghetto.

    Tags: ghettos
    Emanuel Ringelblum and the Creation of the Oneg Shabbat Archive
  • Mohamed Helmy

    Article

    Dr. Mohamed Helmy and Frieda Szturmann helped save a Jewish family in the heart of Nazi Germany. Helmy was the first Arab recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.

    Tags: Berlin
    Mohamed Helmy
  • Zeilsheim Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Zeilsheim DP camp.

    Zeilsheim Displaced Persons Camp
  • Germans gather around books they regard as "un-German"

    Photo

    Germans crowd around a truck filled with "un-German" books, confiscated from the library of the Institute for Sexual Science, for burning by the Nazis.  The books were publically burned at Berlin's Opernplatz (Opera Square). Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.

    Germans  gather around books they regard as "un-German"
  • German Railways and the Holocaust

    Article

    The European rail network played a crucial role in the implementation of the Final Solution. Millions were deported by rail to killing centers and other sites.

    German Railways and the Holocaust
  • Forced Labor

    Article

    Forced Labor In German-occupied areas, the Nazis singled out Jewish laborers for cruel treatment. Jewish laborers were also subjected to humiliating treatment, as when SS men forced religious Jews to submit to having their beards cut. The ghettos served as bases for utilizing Jewish labor, as did forced-labor camps for Jews in occupied Poland. In the Lodz ghetto, for example, the Nazis opened 96 factories. The ability to work could save one's life, but most often only temporarily. Jews deemed unproductive…

    Forced Labor
  • 1938: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of Nazi Germany during 1938.

    1938: Key Dates
  • Mein Kampf

    Article

    Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is the best known and most popular Nazi text ever published with over 12 million copies sold from 1925 to 1945.

    Mein Kampf
  • Edward R. Murrow

    Article

    US radio and TV journalist Edward R. Murrow reported live from London during the Blitz; he also broadcast the first eyewitness account of the liberation of Buchenwald.

  • Stanisławów

    Article

    As the Nazis conducted the...

  • Moringen Youth Camp

    Article

    The Moringen camp was one of the so-called youth protection camps that the Nazi regime established for young people who were alleged to have strayed from Nazi norms and ideals.

    Tags: youth camps
  • Marriage certificate obtained by Dr. Mohamed Helmy

    Document

    Marriage certificate obtained by Dr. Mohamed Helmy stating that Anna Gutman (Boros) married an Egyptian man in a ceremony held in Helmy’s home. Dr. Helmy also received certification from the Central Islamic Institute in Berlin attesting to Anna’s conversion to Islam, which the marriage certificate reflects. Translation: Marriage certificate On Wednesday June 16, 1943, we have certified the marriage contract between Abdelaziz Helmy Hammad, 36 years old, who was born on May 6th, 1906, in Faqous,…

    Tags: rescue
    Marriage certificate obtained by Dr. Mohamed Helmy
  • Belzec: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore key events in the history of the Belzec killing center in the Nazi camp system. It was constructed for the sole purpose of murdering Jews.

    Belzec: Key Dates
  • Shlomo Reich

    ID Card

    Shlomo was one of seven children born in Lodz to the Reich family. The Reichs were a religious Jewish family, and Shlomo's Hasidic father wore earlocks and a traditional fur hat. After public school every day, Shlomo attended the Ostrovtze Yeshiva, a rabbinical academy where he studied Jewish holy texts. Shlomo's father owned a shoelace factory. 1933-39: The Germans invaded Lodz in September 1939 and began to institute anti-Jewish measures. Jews were not allowed to use public transportation, to leave the…

    Tags: Lodz Poland
    Shlomo Reich
  • History of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

    Article

    The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum opened in April 1993. Explore the history of the nation's memorial to the millions murdered during the Holocaust.

    History of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  • Foehrenwald Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Foehrenwald DP camp.

    Foehrenwald Displaced Persons Camp
  • Immediate American Responses to the Nazi Book Burnings

    Article

    The Nazi book burnings of 1933 sparked responses from anti-Fascist organizations, Jewish groups, and writers in the United States. Learn more.

    Tags: book burning
    Immediate American Responses to the Nazi Book Burnings
  • Berlin-Marzahn (camp for Roma)

    Article

    The Berlin-Marzahn camp was established a few miles from Berlin's city center, for the detention of Roma, on the eve of the 1936 summer Olympics.

  • Wolfgang Munzer

    ID Card

    An only child, Wolfgang was born in Berlin to Jewish parents. His father was the foreign representative for a sewing notions company. The family lived in a comfortable apartment in the southwestern district of the city. Wolfgang attended secondary school there and hoped to become an electrical engineer. 1933-39: When the Nazis came to power, Wolfgang's father fled Germany because he was a socialist and was afraid he'd be arrested. Wolfgang's mother was very ill, so his grandmother took care of him until…

    Wolfgang Munzer
  • Wladyslaw Tadeusz Surmacki

    ID Card

    Born to Catholic parents, Wladyslaw attended schools in Warsaw and earned a degree in survey engineering in Moscow in 1914. After fighting in World War I, he commanded a horse artillery division in Warsaw, worked for Poland's Military Geographic Institute, and taught topography courses. He started a family in 1925, and after he retired from the army in 1929 he founded a surveying company. 1933-39: When war with Germany became imminent in the summer of 1939, Wladyslaw volunteered to fight but was rejected…

    Wladyslaw Tadeusz Surmacki
  • Kalman Kernweiss

    ID Card

    Kalman was the oldest of ten children born to poor, devout Jewish parents in a small village in south central Poland. His father supported the family by buying chickens, eggs and vegetables from the peasants and selling them at the Kolbuszowa market a few miles away. Kalman walked to Kolbuszowa each day to attend public school in the morning and religious school in the afternoon. 1933-39: In 1933 Kalman was accepted to study at a renowned rabbinical institute in Lublin. When there was time, he taught…

    Kalman Kernweiss

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