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  • Life After the Holocaust: Blanka Rothschild

    Article

    With the end of World War II and collapse of the Nazi regime, survivors of the Holocaust faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. With little in the way of financial resources and few, if any, surviving family members, most eventually emigrated from Europe to start their lives again. Between 1945 and 1952, more than 80,000 Holocaust survivors immigrated to the United States. Listen to Blanka Rothschild's story. 

    Life After the Holocaust: Blanka Rothschild
  • Benno Müller-Hill, Antje Kosemund, Paul Eggert, and Elvira Manthey describe the Euthanasia Program

    Oral History

    Benno Müller-Hill, professor of genetics at the University of Cologne and the author of Murderous Science, describes the Nazi "Euthanasia" Program, with oral history excerpts from Antje Kosemund, Paul Eggert, and Elvira Manthey. Antje Kosemund had a disabled younger sister who was admitted to Alsterdorf Institute, Hamburg, December 1933, at the age of three and was subsequently killed in 1944. Paul Eggert was a resident of the orphanage section of the Dortmund-Applerbeck institution from 1942-43 where he witnessed the euthanasia of fellow orphans. Elvira Manthey was taken with her sister from a large, impoverished family and placed in a children’s home, 1938.

    [Photo credits: Getty Images, New York City; Yad Vashem, Jerusalem; Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie), Historisches Archiv, Bildersammlung GDA, Munich; Bundesarchiv Koblenz, Germany; Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes, Vienna; Kriemhild Synder: Die Landesheilanstalt Uchtspringe und ihre Verstrickung in nationalsozialistische Verbrechen; HHStAW Abt. 461, Nr. 32442/12; Privat Collection L. Orth, APG Bonn.]

    Benno Müller-Hill, Antje Kosemund, Paul Eggert, and Elvira Manthey describe the Euthanasia Program
  • What does war make possible?

    Discussion Question

    Persecution of Jews and other targeted groups was already government policy in Germany once the Nazis were in power in 1933. But following the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, war provided the opportunity and motivation for more extreme Nazi policies.

    The 80th anniversary of the outbreak of World War II provides an opportunity to reflect upon fundamental questions about the role of war. What possibilities did the onset of World War II create?

    What does war make possible?
  • What conditions, ideologies, and ideas made the Holocaust possible?

    Discussion Question

    The leaders of Nazi Germany, a modern, educated society, aimed to destroy millions of men, women, and children because of their Jewish identity. Understanding this process may help us to better understand the conditions under which mass violence is possible and to take steps to prevent such conditions from developing. 

    Explore fundamental questions about how and why the Holocaust was possible. 

    What conditions, ideologies, and ideas made the Holocaust possible?
  • How did the Nazis and their collaborators implement the Holocaust?

    Discussion Question

    When Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler became German chancellor on January 30, 1933, no step-by-step blueprint for the genocide of Jews as a “race” existed. After the outbreak of World War II, millions of Jews came under Nazi control. Nazi policy extended from persecution to ghettoization and ultimately to systematic mass murder. 

    Learn about the staggering extent of the resources and cooperation required to implement the "Final Solution" and the active participation of governments, societies, and individuals across Europe.

    How did the Nazis and their collaborators implement the Holocaust?

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