Portrait of Jan Karski in Bethesda, Maryland, ca 1988
Jews have lived in Europe for more than two thousand years. The American Jewish Yearbook placed the total Jewish population of Europe at about 9.5 million in 1933. This number represented more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population, which was estimated at 15.3 million. Most European Jews resided in eastern Europe, with about 5 1/2 million Jews living in Poland and the Soviet Union. Before the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, Europe had a dynamic and highly developed Jewish culture. In little more…
How did Christians and their churches in Germany respond to the Nazi regime and its laws, particularly to the persecution of the Jews? Learn more.
Portrait of Helen Keller, ca. 1910.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Sara Rachela Plagier.
American novelist Ernest Hemingway on safari, ca. 1933. In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Ernest Hemingway.
A chart of prisoner markings used in German concentration camps. Dachau, Germany, ca. 1938–1942. Beginning in 1937–1938, the SS created a system of marking prisoners in concentration camps. Sewn onto uniforms, the color-coded badges identified the reason for an individual’s incarceration, with some variation among camps. The Nazis used this chart illustrating prisoner markings in the Dachau concentration camp. Critical Thinking Questions Why did the SS have a system of badging and identification…
Ferdinand Lassalle was a founder of the German labor movement. Some 70 years after his death, his works were burned in Nazi Germany for their socialist doctrine.
A large family group celebrates the Passover seder. Lodz, Poland, ca. 1938-1939.
Portrait of Stella Nahmiyas in her school cap. Bitola, ca. 1940.
Regina's parents, Pola and Isak. Poland, ca. 1934.
Regina (left) with sisters Krysia and Hania. Poland, ca. 1938.
Displaced persons wait next to their suitcases and bundles, place uncertain, ca. 1947.
Pastor Martin Niemöller at his desk in his home. Berlin, Germany, ca. 1936.
Deportation of Slovak Jews. The victims wear tags and are escorted by Slovak guards. Czechoslovakia, ca. 1942.
Ernest Hemingway in his World War I Red Cross Ambulance Corps uniform, ca. 1918.
Prisoners at the Gurs detention camp. Gurs, France, ca. April 1941.
Women prisoners standing in front of barracks at the Gurs camp. Gurs, France, ca. 1943.
Young children in the Gurs camp. Gurs, France, ca. 1943.
Roundup of Jews. Paris, France, ca. 1942.
German Jewish writer Alfred Kerr was a well known theater critic during the Weimar period. His works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933.
Sketch from the scrapbook of Donald Coster presented to him during his inspection of the internment camp in Djelfa. The page is entitled, "Gulliver's travels to Djelfa." Djelfa, Algeria, ca. 1942.
A suitcase used (ca. 1939) by a Jewish refugee fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe to Japan. The suitcase is covered with labels from various stops along the journey, including one from a hotel in Moscow (top left), one for the NYK Line (top middle), and six from hotels throughout Japan. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
David Bloch, untitled woodblock print with watercolor, ca. 1945. Bloch, a German Jewish refugee, depicted typical shops in "Little Vienna," as Chusan Road in Hongkew became known. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
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