View of the charred remains of Jewish victims burned by the Germans near the Maly Trostinets concentration camp. Photograph taken ca. 1944. In the fall of 1943, the Germans destroyed the Minsk ghetto. The SS deported some Jews from Minsk to the Sobibor killing center, and killed about 4,000 remaining Jews at Maly Trostinets.
Mugshot of Colonel Joachim Peiper, defendant in the Malmedy atrocity trial. He was sentenced to death by hanging. Photograph taken ca. 1946.
A view of the wall surrounding the ruins of the Warsaw ghetto in German-occupied Poland a few months after the ghetto's destruction. Photograph taken ca. June-October 1943.
Studio portrait of two Armenian girls wearing traditional clothing. Ottoman Empire, ca 1895. [Courtesy of Mabel Aharonian]
Elsa Eisner, marked with a Jewish badge, walks down a street in Prague. She, her mother, twin sister and other members of the family were deported to Auschwitz in July 1942. Prague, Czechoslovakia, ca. 1941.
Advertising poster for the antisemitic film, Der ewige Jude (The Eternal Jew), directed by Fritz Hippler. Germany, ca. 1940.
Survivors in Buchenwald just after liberation. Troops of the US 6th Armored Division entered Buchenwald on April 11, and troops of the 80th Infantry arrived on April 12. Buchenwald, Germany, photograph taken ca. April 11, 1945.
Frieda Greinegger during a family outing to a park in the mid-1930s. Frieda would later spend almost two years in the Ravensbrück concentration camp as punishment for consorting with a Polish forced laborer, Julian Noga. Austria, ca. 1935.
Dutch Seventh-day Adventist Johan Weidner headed the rescue organization "Dutch-Paris," which smuggled Jewish refugees into Switzerland and Spain. France, ca. 1940.
Jewish refugees from France and the Netherlands make their way from France into Spain through a pass in the Pyrenees mountain range. They are being rescued by "Dutch-Paris," an organization created by Seventh-day Adventist Johan Weidner. Ca. 1940.
Alice and Heinrich Muller pose for a photograph while in costume for the Purim holiday. Hlohovec, Czechoslovakia, ca. 1934–35.
A soccer team of the Jewish sports club, Ha-koach (The Strength). Kalisz, Poland, ca. 1933.
German Jewish refugee Erwin Eisfelder stands outside Cafe Louis on Ward Road. The cafe was named in honor of his father. It was a popular gathering place for refugees in Shanghai during the war years. Shanghai, China, ca. 1944.
Leaders of the Sighet Jewish community. Those pictured include Mr. Hershkovich (seated far left), Mr. Klein (seated second from left), Mr. Yacobovich (standing far right), and Mr. Jahan (standing second row, right). Photograph taken ca. 1928–1930.
Photograph showing Blanka when she was about 1 year old, ca. 1923. She received this photograph many years later, after she came to America, from her grandmother's half brother.
Lisa and Aron at Lake Michigan, ca. 1947-1949.
Aron and Lisa's three sons (Howard, Gordon, and Daniel) at the middle son's graduation from the University of Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin, ca. 1972.
Aron and Lisa in Poland, ca. 1994, while accompanying high school students as part of a "Shoreshim" group.
Judge Thomas Buergenthal, formal portrait for the International Court of Justice in the Hague. ca. 2003.
Laks family photo, Poland, ca. 1925. Sitting, left to right: Pola Laks (Regina's mother) with baby Hania, grandmother Sara Tennenblum, Aunt Andzia Tennenblum. Standing, left to right: Aunt Lodzia Laks, Aunt Regina Tennenblum, Izak Laks (Regina's father), Aunt Rozia Tennenblum, and Aunt Dora Laks.
A Serbian gendarme serving the Serbian puppet government led by Milan Nedić escorts a group of Roma (Gypsies) to their execution. Yugoslavia, ca. 1941–1943.
German naval officer Martin Niemöller (top, foreground) commands a U-Boat during World War I. Flensburg, Germany , ca. 1914–17.
Refugees in the Gare de Lyon in Paris during World War I. Paris, France, photograph taken ca. 1914–15.
A man, women and a child sort through the rubble of a Polish home destroyed during World War I. Photograph taken ca. October 18, 1915.
Ruins of the library in Louvain, destroyed during World War I. Louvain, Belgium, ca. 1914–1915
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.