Vicki Baum was a bestselling author who embraced the ideals of liberation for women. Her works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
The International Military Tribunal charged 24 defendants representing a cross-section of German diplomatic, economic, political, and military leadership.
The cover of a diary written by Elizabeth Kaufmann while living with the family of Pastor André Trocmé in Le Chambon-sur-Lignon. Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France, 1940–41.
Page from a diary written by Elizabeth Kaufmann while living with the family of Pastor André Trocmé in Le Chambon-sur-Lignon. Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France, 1940–41.
Photo of Peter Feigl, a Jewish child hidden in the Protestant village Le Chambon-sur-Lignon. Le Chambon, France, August 9, 1943.
Elizabeth and her family were in Paris when war began. As the Germans advanced in 1940, she and her mother fled southward. Elizabeth eventually reached Le Chambon, where she helped care for children sheltered by the town's pastor, Andre Trocme, and his wife. In late 1941 her father was among 1,000 intellectuals who received special US visas from President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The family escaped from France in 1942 on one of the last passenger ships to cross the Atlantic during the war.
Explore Manya Friedmann’s biography and listen to her describe her experiences following the liberation of Auschwitz.
Alfred was the fifth of six children born to Jewish parents in a small town in Moravia, where his father ran a dry-goods and clothing store. The Krakauers spoke both Czech and German at home. In 1929 and 1930, after graduating from secondary school, Alfred served in the Czechoslovakian army. He enjoyed skiing and also played soccer for the Maccabi Jewish team. 1933-39: Alfred graduated in 1934 from Prague's Industrial School for Art. He became a graphic artist and decided to remain in Prague because of…
Josef was born to German Catholic parents. They lived in a Moravian village near the city of Sternberk in a German-inhabited region known as the Sudetenland. At that time Czechoslovakia was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Upon graduation from a textile school, Josef supervised 600 employees at a silk factory in Moravska Trebova. 1933-39: After serving in the Czechoslovak army, Josef became a Jehovah's Witness in Prague, and refused to have anything more to do with the military, following the…
As of mid-2022, there were about 27 million refugees. Learn more about these refugees, the violence they face, and the global impact of the refugee crisis.
Throughout history Jews have faced prejudice and discrimination, known as antisemitism. Learn more about the long history of antisemitism.
Learn about the subcamps of the SS-established Herzogenbusch concentration camp in the Netherlands, including Amersfoort, Arnheim, Eindhoven, and others.
The Germans established the Blechhammer camp as a subcamp of Auschwitz in April 1941. Learn about the camp's history and conditions there.
Efforts by Jewish groups led to the rescue of thousands during the Holocaust. Yet they could do little to save millions of European Jews from the Nazi genocide.
The German Armed Forces High Command, headed by Hitler, directed Germany’s armed forces before and during WWII. It was deeply complicit in the Holocaust and other crimes of the Third Reich.
The Nazi regime’s Nuremberg Race Laws of September 1935 made Jews legally different from their non-Jewish neighbors. The laws were the foundation for future antisemitic measures .
International League Against Anti-Semitism in North Africa (LICA) was born of French-Jewish concerns that Fascist and antisemitic ideas would spread from Europe to indigenous population in France’s colonies. The org...
Four of Norman's sisters, the maid, and Norman's mother, Esther, do laundry in the yard of their home. Kolbuszowa, Poland, 1934.
What was the Brihah Movement? Brihah (the Hebrew word for "flight, escape") was the name given to the postwar, organized illegal emigration from eastern Europe into the Allied-occupied zones and Palestine or Israel. The Origins of Brihah The clandestine movement of Jews out of Poland to the west had its roots in a conference organized by young Polish Zionists in Lublin in late 1944, following the Soviet liberation of the city. Abba Kovner, partisan and poet, was one of the early leaders of this loose…
After WWII and the fall of the Nazi regime, Holocaust survivors faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. Listen to Thomas Buergenthal's story.
Page from the diary of Peter Feigl, a Jewish child hidden in the Protestant village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon. The photos show his parents, who perished in a concentration camp. The text is in French and German. Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France, 1942-1943.
György Beifeld, a Jewish conscript in the Hungarian army, created a visual memoir of his experiences on the eastern front in 1942–1943 as a member of a forced-labor battalion .
Joseph and his family were Roman Catholics. After Germany invaded Poland in 1939, roundups of Poles for forced labor in Germany began. Joseph escaped arrest twice but the third time, in 1941, he was deported to a forced-labor camp in Hannover, Germany. For over four years he was forced to work on the construction of concrete air raid shelters. Upon liberation by US forces in 1945, the forced-labor camp was transformed into a displaced persons camp. Joseph stayed there until he got a visa to enter the…
In 1933 Barbara's family moved to Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. They became friends of Anne Frank and her family. The Germans invaded the Netherlands in 1940. Barbara's boyfriend, Manfred, had underground contacts and she got false papers. Her mother, sister, and father were deported to Westerbork and then to Auschwitz. Barbara survived using her false papers and worked for the resistance. She helped take Jews to hiding places and also hid Jews in an apartment held in her false name.
The Germans captured Chaim, a soldier in the Polish army, as they invaded Poland in 1939. They first sent Chaim to Germany for forced labor, but as a Jewish prisoner of war, he was returned to Poland. Ultimately, Chaim was deported to the Sobibor camp, where the rest of his family died. In the 1943 Sobibor uprising, Chaim killed a guard. He escaped with his girlfriend, Selma, whom he later married. A farmer hid them until liberation in June 1944. In this clip, Chaim refers to [Gustav] Wagner, Sobibor's…
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