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How did Christians and their churches in Germany respond to the Nazi regime and its laws, particularly to the persecution of the Jews? Learn more.
Portrait of Jan Karski in Bethesda, Maryland, ca 1988
Jews have lived in Europe for more than two thousand years. The American Jewish Yearbook placed the total Jewish population of Europe at about 9.5 million in 1933. This number represented more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population, which was estimated at 15.3 million. Most European Jews resided in eastern Europe, with about 5 1/2 million Jews living in Poland and the Soviet Union. Before the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, Europe had a dynamic and highly developed Jewish culture. In little more…
Portrait of Helen Keller, ca. 1910.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Sara Rachela Plagier.
In 1946-48, the British government intercepted tens of thousands of Holocaust survivors seeking to reach Palestine and held them in detention camps on Cyprus.
American novelist Ernest Hemingway on safari, ca. 1933. In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Ernest Hemingway.
German Jewish writer Alfred Kerr was a well known theater critic during the Weimar period. His works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933.
Regina's parents, Pola and Isak. Poland, ca. 1934.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.