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world war I

  • Blanka Rothschild describes returning to Lodz after the war to look for family members

    Oral History

    Blanka was an only child in a close-knit family in Lodz, Poland. Her father died in 1937. After the German invasion of Poland, Blanka and her mother remained in Lodz with Blanka's grandmother, who was unable to travel. Along with other relatives, they were forced into the Lodz ghetto in 1940. There, Blanka worked in a bakery. She and her mother later worked in a hospital in the Lodz ghetto, where they remained until late 1944 when they were deported to the Ravensbrueck camp in Germany. From Ravensbrueck,…

    Blanka Rothschild describes returning to Lodz after the war to look for family members
  • Benjamin (Beryl) Ferencz describes evidence collected at the Mauthausen camp

    Oral History

    Ben was born in a small village in the Carpathian Mountains of Transylvania in Romania. When he was an infant, his family moved to the United States. Ben attended Harvard University, where he studied criminal law. Ben graduated from Harvard University Law School in 1943. He joined a US anti-aircraft artillery battalion that was training in preparation for an Allied invasion of western Europe. At the end of World War II in Europe, Ben was transferred to the war crimes investigation branch of the US Army. He…

    Benjamin (Beryl) Ferencz describes evidence collected at the Mauthausen camp
  • Quakers

    Article

    Though a small religious movement, the Society of Friends (Quakers) organized relief and advocated rescue in Europe before, during, and after the Holocaust. The American Friends Service Committee became an important part of a rescue network helping refugees. The group worked in French internment camps, hid Jewish children, and assisted thousands of Jewish and non-Jewish refugees with immigration and resettlement to the United States.

    Quakers
  • Benjamin (Beryl) Ferencz describes how he became involved in preparations for the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings

    Oral History

    Ben was born in a small village in the Carpathian Mountains of Transylvania in Romania. When he was an infant, his family moved to the United States. Ben attended Harvard University, where he studied criminal law. Ben graduated from Harvard University Law School in 1943. He joined a US anti-aircraft artillery battalion that was training in preparation for an Allied invasion of western Europe. At the end of World War II in Europe, Ben was transferred to the war crimes investigation branch of the US Army. He…

    Benjamin (Beryl) Ferencz describes how he became involved in preparations for the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings
  • Jewish Community of Kalisz: Youth, Culture, Religion

    Article

    Kalisz had a vibrant Jewish community between WWI and WWII. Learn about its youth movements, schools, cultural life, sports, and religious life.

    Jewish Community of Kalisz: Youth, Culture, Religion
  • Killing Centers: An Overview

    Article

    The Nazis established killing centers in German-occupied Europe during WWII. They built these killing centers for the mass murder of human beings.

    Killing Centers: An Overview
  • Charlene Schiff describes the Soviet occupation of Horochow after the outbreak of World War II

    Oral History

    Both of Charlene's parents were local Jewish community leaders, and the family was active in community life. Charlene's father was a professor of philosophy at the State University of Lvov. World War II began with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. Charlene's town was in the part of eastern Poland occupied by the Soviet Union under the German-Soviet Pact of August 1939. Under the Soviet occupation, the family remained in its home and Charlene's father continued to teach. The Germans…

    Charlene Schiff describes the Soviet occupation of Horochow after the outbreak of World War II
  • Erich Mühsam

    Photo

    Identification picture of Erich Mühsam taken in the Oranienburg concentration camp. Mühsam, an anarchist and a pacifist, worked as an editor and writer; he was imprisoned during World War I for opposing the war. Arrested during the massive roundup of Nazi political opponents following the Reichstag fire (February 27, 1933), Mühsam was tortured to death in Oranienburg on July 11, 1934. Oranienburg, Germany, February 3, 1934.

    Erich Mühsam
  • Children during the Holocaust

    Article

    Children were especially vulnerable to Nazi persecution. Learn more about the fates of Jewish and non-Jewish children.

    Children during the Holocaust
  • Sarah Judelowitz

    ID Card

    Sarah, born Sarah Gamper, was one of four children born to a Jewish family in the Baltic port city of Liepaja. Her parents owned a general store there. At the outbreak of World War I, Sarah was studying piano at a conservatory in Russia. During World War I, she remained there to serve as a nurse. She returned to Liepaja, and after marrying Herman Judelowitz in 1920, settled there. 1933-39: Sarah and Herman operated a shoe store in the front of their small shoe workshop. By 1935 they had three daughters,…

    Tags: Latvia
    Sarah Judelowitz

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