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world war I

  • Indoctrinating Youth


    The Nazi Party targeted German youth as a special audience for its propaganda messages. Read more about the indoctrination of youth.

    Indoctrinating Youth
  • Misuse of Holocaust Imagery Today: When Is It Antisemitism?


    Many images and symbols from the Holocaust era have become easily recognizable. The familiarit...

    Tags: antisemitism
  • Displaced Persons


    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Learn about the experiences of Jewish DPs.

    Displaced Persons
  • The Nuremberg Race Laws


    What were the Nuremberg Race Laws?  On September 15, 1935, the Nazi regime announced two new laws:  The Reich Citizenship Law The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor These laws informally became known as the Nuremberg Laws or Nuremberg Race Laws. This is because they were first announced at a Nazi Party rally held in the German city of Nuremberg.  Why did the Nazis enact the Nuremberg Race Laws?  The Nuremberg Race LawsThe Nazis enacted the Nuremberg Laws, because they…

    The Nuremberg Race Laws
  • Gerd Jacob Zwienicki

    ID Card

    Gerd was the eldest of four children. His father, Josef, had left Ukraine in 1913 and opened a bicycle sales and repair shop in Bremen. His mother, Selma, was descended from a distinguished Jewish family and had been a kindergarten teacher and a bookkeeper for a large firm. As a child, Gerd experienced the hardships of the Depression and witnessed the violent street fights between the Nazis and their political opponents, the Communists and Socialists. 1933–39: When the Nazis came to power in 1933, Gerd…

    Gerd Jacob Zwienicki
  • Selma (Wijnberg) Engel describes deportation to Sobibor

    Oral History

    Selma was the youngest of four children born to Jewish parents. When she was 7, Selma and her family moved to the town of Zwolle where her parents ran a small hotel. When the Germans invaded the Netherlands in 1940, they confiscated the hotel. The family had to live in a poor Jewish section of the town. Selma went into hiding but was betrayed and then sent to the Westerbork camp. In April 1943 she was deported to Sobibor, where she worked in the clothes sorting area. There, the prisoners tried to pocket…

    Selma (Wijnberg) Engel describes deportation to Sobibor
  • Leo Melamed describes train ride across the Soviet Union

    Oral History

    Leo was seven years old when Germany invaded Poland in September 1939. Before the war, Leo's father was a mathematics teacher and member of the Bialystok City Council. Fearing arrest, Leo's father fled Bialystok for Vilna just before the German occupation. Leo and his mother eventually joined his father in Vilna. After the Soviets occupied Vilna, Leo's father obtained transit visas to Japan. The family left Vilna in December 1940, traveled across the Soviet Union on the Trans-Siberian Express, and arrived…

    Tags: escape
    Leo Melamed describes train ride across the Soviet Union
  • Thomas Buergenthal describes differing perspectives on international justice

    Oral History

    Judge Thomas Buergenthal was one of the youngest survivors of the Auschwitz and Sachsenhausen concentration camps. He immigrated to the United States at the age of 17. Judge Buergenthal has devoted his life to international and human rights law. A former chairman of the Museum’s Committee on Conscience, he is currently the Lobingier Professor of Comparative Law and Jurisprudence at the George Washington University Law School and served for a decade as the American judge at the International Court of…

    Thomas Buergenthal describes differing perspectives on international justice
  • How did German professionals and civil leaders contribute to the persecution of Jews and other groups?

    Discussion Question

    How involved in the Holocaust were German professionals and civil leaders? What were some of the motivations and pressures that led to a wide range of behavior? What indeed was the range of behavior, from complying to perpetrating?Explore t...

    How did German professionals and civil leaders contribute to the persecution of Jews and other groups?
  • Moringen Youth Camp


    The Nazi regime established so-called youth protection camps for young people who were al...

    Tags: youth camps

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