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Scene of destruction during World War I: panoramic view of the battlefield at Guillemont, September 1916, during the Battle of the Somme. © IWM (Q 1281)
Houses along the River Meuse damaged during the Battle of Verdun, December 1916. The battle was one of the longest and deadliest of World War I. © IWM (Q 67594)
Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel served as commander of all German armed forces during World War I...
British troops at the site of a former German trench following the withdrawal of German troops to the Hindenburg line on the western front in World War I. This photograph shows a trench bridge over a German trench. Gommecourt, France, 1917.
Hitler was determined to overturn the military and territorial provisions of the Versailles treaty, among the much resented loss of the city of Danzig after WWI.
The 86th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Attendorn, a civilian forced-labor camp, in 1945.
The trauma of WWI would profoundly shape the attitudes and actions of both leaders and ordinary people during the Holocaust. Learn more about the war and its aftermath.
Erich Maria Remarque wrote the classic novel “All Quiet on the Western Front,” which became a Hollywood film. His works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933.
Hitler rose to power during a time of economic and political instability in Germany. Learn more about how and when Hitler came to power.
Trench warfare is one of the iconic symbols of World War I. This photograph shows British troops carrying boards over a support line trench at night during fighting on the western front. Cambrai, France, January 12, 1917.
Adolf Hitler (front row, far left) served on the western front in World War I and during the course of the war was twice decorated for service, wounded, and temporarily blinded in a mustard gas attack. He used his veteran status in later election campaigns.
The 1st Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two subcamps of Flossenbürg in 1945.
The concept of Lebensraum, “living space,” was as a critical component in the Nazi worldview that drove both its military conquests and racial policy.
The 29th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Dinslaken, a civilian labor camp, in 1945.
The 4th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Haunstetten subcamp of Dachau.
President Barack Obama visited Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany on June 5, 2009. In a speech at the site, he repudiated Holocaust denial. Browse transcript.
Elie Wiesel was a human rights activist, author, and teacher who reflected on his experience during the Holocaust in more than 40 books. Learn more.
The 26th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Gusen subcamp of Mauthausen in 1945.
The Nazis used propaganda to to facilitate persecution, war, and ultimately genocide. Read more about the cult of the leader around Adolf Hitler.
The 36th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating some of the Kaufering subcamps of Dachau in 1945.
German General Erich Ludendorff was a key proponent of the fictitious “Stab-in-the-Back” myth which blamed Jews and others for Germany’s defeat in WWI.
Learn about the origins and legacy of Pastor Martin Niemöller's famous postwar words, “First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out…”
Learn about the Jewish community of Munkacs, famous for its Hasidic activity as well as its innovations in Zionism and modern Jewish education.
Georg Grosz was a German artist of the Dada movement. His books, which had many of his best-known plates, were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Learn about causes, scope, and impacts of the Great Depression, including how it played a role in Adolf Hitler's emergence as a viable political leader in Germany.
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