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world war I

  • World War I and its Aftermath: Key Dates

    Article

    November 2018 marked the centenary of the end of World War I (1914–18), the first great international conflict of the twentieth century. After almost 100 years of relative peace, the major European nations went into a war that left millions dead, empires toppled, and a continent devastated. The conflict and its divisive peace left a legacy that helped give rise to totalitarian ideologies, like Communism, Fascism, and Nazism, and paved the way for World War II and the Holocaust.

    World War I and its Aftermath: Key Dates
  • Adolf Hitler was a frontline soldier during World War I

    Photo

    Adolf Hitler (front row, far left) served on the western front in World War I and during the course of the war was twice decorated for service, wounded, and temporarily blinded in a mustard gas attack. He used his veteran status in later election campaigns.

    Adolf Hitler was a frontline soldier during World War I
  • Scene of destruction during World War I

    Photo

    Houses along the River Meuse damaged during the Battle of Verdun, December 1916. The battle was one of the longest and deadliest of World War I. © IWM (Q 67594)

    Tags: World War I
    Scene of destruction during World War I
  • World War I: Treaties and Reparations
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Article

    After the devastation of World War I, the victorious powers imposed a series of treaties upon the defeated powers. Among the treaties, the 1919 Treaty of Versailles held Germany responsible for starting the war. Germany became liable for the cost of massive material damages. The shame of defeat and the 1919 peace settlement played an important role in the rise of Nazism in Germany and the coming of a second “world war” just 20 years later.

    Tags: World War I
    Treaty of Versailles
  • Lebensraum
  • Neville Chamberlain

    Article

    Neville Chamberlain was prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. He is best known for his role in the Munich Agreement of 1938 which ceded parts of Czechoslovakia to Hitler and is now the most popular example of the foreign policy known as appeasement.

     

  • Ernest Hemingway

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Ernest Hemingway. 

    Ernest Hemingway
  • Rosa Luxemburg

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Rosa Luxemburg.

    Rosa Luxemburg
  • Henri Barbusse

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Henri Barbusse.

  • Portrait of Ernest Hemingway

    Photo

    Ernest Hemingway in his World War I Red Cross Ambulance Corps uniform, ca. 1918.

    Portrait of Ernest Hemingway
  • The Great Depression

    Article

    The “Great Depression” is the term used for a severe economic recession which began in the United States in 1929. It had far-reaching effects around the globe, especially in Europe. Many factors, including World War I and its aftermath, set the stage for this economic disaster.

    The Great Depression
  • German Prewar Expansion

    Article

    When Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, he was determined to overturn the military and territorial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. By overturning the treaty,  the German government sought to incorporate ethnically German territories into the Reich. It was the first step toward the creation of a German empire in Europe.

    German Prewar Expansion
  • Hungary before the German Occupation
  • The 89th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners in deplorable conditions. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. The soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief to the evidence of Nazi atrocities. In addition to burying the dead, the Allied forces attempted to help and comfort the survivors with food, clothing and medical assistance.

  • Hitler Comes to Power
  • Making a Leader
  • Paul von Hindenburg

    Article

    Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg was a German general who gained renown during World War I and later as President of the Weimar Republic. He is most relevant to Holocaust history through his dealings with Adolf Hitler. Although he did not approve of Hitler or his politics, Hindenburg became the man who made him Chancellor of Germany, enabling the Nazis’ takeover of power.

    Paul von Hindenburg
  • The 4th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners in deplorable conditions. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. The soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief to the evidence of Nazi atrocities. In addition to burying the dead, the Allied forces attempted to help and comfort the survivors with food, clothing and medical assistance.

  • The 86th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    In 1985, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the US Army's Center of Military History began a program to honor US Army divisions that took part in the liberation of Nazi camps. To date, 36 divisions, including the 86th Infantry Division, have been recognized as liberating units.

  • The 36th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    As Allied troops fought their way toward Berlin, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. Soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief. In addition to burying the dead, Allied forces attempted to help and comfort survivors with food, clothing, and medical assistance. Among the liberating units was the 36th Infantry. 

  • The 29th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    In 1985, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the US Army's Center of Military History began a program to honor US Army divisions that took part in the liberation of Nazi camps. To date, 36 divisions, including the 29th Infantry Division, have been recognized as liberating units.

  • Erich Maria Remarque

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Erich Maria Remarque.

  • Georg Grosz

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Georg Grosz.

    Georg Grosz

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