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world war I

  • Allied delegates in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles

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    Allied delegates in the Hall of Mirrors at the palace of Versailles witness the German delegation's acceptance of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty formally ended World War I. Versailles, France, June 28, 1919.

    Allied delegates in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles
  • The 36th Infantry Division during World War II

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    As Allied troops fought their way toward Berlin, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. Soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief. In addition to burying the dead, Allied forces attempted to help and comfort survivors with food, clothing, and medical assistance. Among the liberating units was the 36th Infantry. 

  • The 4th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners in deplorable conditions. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. The soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief to the evidence of Nazi atrocities. In addition to burying the dead, the Allied forces attempted to help and comfort the survivors with food, clothing and medical assistance.

  • The 1st Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    In 1985, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the US Army's Center of Military History began a program to honor US Army divisions that took part in the liberation of Nazi camps. To date, 36 divisions, including the 1st Infantry Division, have been recognized as liberating units.

  • The 29th Infantry Division during World War II

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    In 1985, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the US Army's Center of Military History began a program to honor US Army divisions that took part in the liberation of Nazi camps. To date, 36 divisions, including the 29th Infantry Division, have been recognized as liberating units.

  • The 86th Infantry Division during World War II

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    In 1985, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the US Army's Center of Military History began a program to honor US Army divisions that took part in the liberation of Nazi camps. To date, 36 divisions, including the 86th Infantry Division, have been recognized as liberating units.

  • 1933: Key Dates

    Article

    Tags: key dates
    1933: Key Dates
  • Freemasonry
  • Erich Ludendorff

    Article

    Erich Ludendorff was a German general who gained renown during the First World War, primarily for his efforts on the eastern front.  He and future German President Paul von Hindenburg built a military empire in the east that lasted until the Germany’s defeat in 1918.  Ludendorff was deeply antisemitic, an early supporter of Hitler, and a high-profile supporter of the false “Stab-in-the-Back” theory.

  • Jews in Prewar Germany
  • Afro-Germans during the Holocaust

    Article

    Although the Nazis did not have an organized program to eliminate African Germans, many of them were persecuted, as were other people of African descent. Some Black people in Germany and German-occupied territories were isolated; an unknown number were sterilized, incarcerated or murdered.

    Afro-Germans during the Holocaust
  • The Nazi Rise to Power

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    The Nazi Party was one of a number of right-wing extremist political groups that emerged in Germany following World War I. Beginning with the onset of the Great Depression it rose rapidly from obscurity to political prominence, becoming the largest party in the German parliament in 1932.

    The Nazi Rise to Power
  • Wilhelm Keitel: Biography

    Article

    Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel served as commander of all German armed forces during World War II. He was fully subservient to Hitler and allowed the latter to control all military strategy. In addition, he signed a series of criminal orders. He was tried and convicted at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg for war crimes and crimes against humanity and sentenced to death.

    Wilhelm Keitel: Biography
  • Painting entitled “Gassed,” By John Singer Sargent, 1919

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    World War I (1914–18) saw the first use of poison gas as a weapon of war. In this oil painting, John Singer Sargent depicted the aftermath of a mustard gas attack on British soldiers during a battle in August 1918. A line of soldiers, with bandaged eyes injured by the gas, hold on to one another as they are led to medical treatment. Around them are rows of other soldiers injured by the effects of the mustard gas, which could cause injuries such as burns and temporary blindness. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 1460)  

    Painting entitled “Gassed,” By John Singer Sargent, 1919
  • Adolf Hitler

    Article

    Adolf Hitler was the undisputed leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party—known as Nazis—since 1921. In 1923, he was arrested and imprisoned for trying to overthrow the German government. His trial brought him fame and followers. He used the subsequent jail time to dictate his political ideas in a book, Mein Kampf—My Struggle. Hitler’s ideological goals included territorial expansion, consolidation of a racially pure state, and elimination of the European Jews and other perceived enemies of Germany.

    Adolf Hitler
  • Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime

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    This timeline chronicles the relationship between the professional military elite and the Nazi state. It pays specific attention to the military leaders’ acceptance of Nazi ideology and their role in perpetrating crimes against Jews, prisoners of war, and unarmed civilians in the name of that ideology. 

    Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime
  • Jewish Communities of Prewar Germany

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    Before the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, Germany had a thriving Jewish population with strong community organizations. Jews had lived in Germany since Roman times. They were well integrated into German society—they spoke the language, identified with the nationality, and worked alongside non-Jews.

    Jewish Communities of Prewar Germany
  • Martin Niemöller: "First they came for the socialists..."

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    Martin Niemöller (1892–1984) was a prominent Lutheran pastor in Germany. He emerged as an outspoken public foe of Adolf Hitler and spent the last seven years of Nazi rule in concentration camps. He is perhaps best remembered for his postwar words, “First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out…”

    Martin Niemöller: "First they came for the socialists..."
  • Jewish Community of Kalisz: Economy, Politics, Government
  • Rallying the Nation
  • The Armenian Genocide (1915-16): Overview
  • Germany, 1933

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    When Adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933, Germany was potentially one of the strongest powers in Europe. Hitler was determined to overturn the remaining military and territorial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, which had followed World War I. He aimed to include German-speaking people in the Reich as a preliminary step toward the restoration of German power and the creation of a German empire in Europe. Large numbers of German-speaking people lived in Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. Within 10 years of Hitler's appointment as chancellor, Austria was incorporated into Germany, Czechoslovakia was partitioned, and Poland was invaded by German forces, unleashing World War II.

    Germany, 1933
  • The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, 1807-1924

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    Founded by ethnic Turks in 1299, the Ottoman Empire took its name from Osman I, the leader of what was initially a small principality in northwestern Anatolia (Asia Minor). Over the course of the next six centuries, Ottoman rule expanded across much of the Mediterranean Basin. At the height of its power under Suleiman the Magnificent (1494-1566), the Ottoman Empire represented a vast multilingual and multiethnic realm encompassing southeastern Europe, North and East Africa, Western Asia, and the Caucasus. During a period of decline, the Empire lost much of its territory in southeastern Europe and the Balkans. After World War I, the Ottoman Empire collapsed, leading to the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923 and to the creation of other new states in the Middle East.

    Tags: World War I
    The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, 1807-1924
  • Insignia of the 89th Infantry Division

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    Insignia of the 89th Infantry Division. The 89th Infantry Division's nickname, the "Rolling W," is based on the division's insignia. Created during World War I, this insignia utilized a letter "M" inside a wheel. When the wheel turns, the "M" becomes a "W." The letters "MW" signify the mid-west origin of the troops who formed the 89th during World War I. The division was also known as the "Middle West" division, another variation on its origin.

    Insignia of the 89th Infantry Division
  • The 90th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners in deplorable conditions. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. The soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief to the evidence of Nazi atrocities. In addition to burying the dead, the Allied forces attempted to help and comfort the survivors with food, clothing and medical assistance.

  • The 30th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    In 1985, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the US Army's Center of Military History began a program to honor US Army divisions that took part in the liberation of Nazi camps. To date, 36 divisions, including the 30th Infantry Division, have been recognized as liberating units.

  • The 2nd Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners in deplorable conditions. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. The soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief to the evidence of Nazi atrocities. In addition to burying the dead, the Allied forces attempted to help and comfort the survivors with food, clothing and medical assistance.

  • The 26th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    In 1985, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the US Army's Center of Military History began a program to honor US Army divisions that took part in the liberation of Nazi camps. To date, 36 divisions, including the 26th Infantry Division, have been recognized as liberating units.

  • The 80th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners in deplorable conditions. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. The soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief to the evidence of Nazi atrocities. In addition to burying the dead, the Allied forces attempted to help and comfort the survivors with food, clothing and medical assistance.

  • The 82nd Airborne Division during World War II

    Article

    As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners in deplorable conditions. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. The soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief to the evidence of Nazi atrocities. In addition to burying the dead, the Allied forces attempted to help and comfort the survivors with food, clothing and medical assistance.

    The 82nd Airborne Division during World War II
  • The 83rd Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    In 1985, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the US Army's Center of Military History began a program to honor US Army divisions that took part in the liberation of Nazi camps. To date, 36 divisions, including the 83rd Infantry Division, have been recognized as liberating units.

  • The Role of German Clergy and Church Leaders

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    Persecution of Jews and other groups was not solely the result of measures originating with Hitler and other Nazi zealots. Nazi leaders required the active help or cooperation of professionals working in diverse fields who in many instances were not convinced Nazis. Church leaders and other members of the conservative elite who were in a position to influence public opinion were all but silent regarding the persecution of Jews.

    The Role of German Clergy and Church Leaders
  • The Armenian Genocide (1915-16): In Depth
  • American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and Refugee Aid
  • Sighet

    Article

    Sighet (known today as Sighetu Marmatiei), a town in Transylvania, was part of Romania following World War I. The town was part of Hungary between 1940 and 1944. Sighet is well known as the birthplace of Elie Wiesel (1928-2016) noted Holocaust survivor and author of Night. Wiesel, his family, and the rest of the Jews of Sighet were deported from the town to Auschwitz in May 1944.

    Sighet
  • Fascism

    Article

    Fascism is a far-right political philosophy, or theory of government, that emerged in the early twentieth century. Fascism prioritizes the nation over the individual, who exists to serve the nation. While fascist movements could be found in almost every country following World War I, fascism was most successful in Italy and Germany.

    Fascism
  • The Police in the Weimar Republic

    Article

    In 1918, Germany transitioned from a semi-authoritarian empire to the Weimar Republic, a democracy that protected individual rights and limited police power. During the Weimar Republic, police struggled to respond to a rise in crime, political violence, and high unemployment. The Nazis promised to fix these problems, which helped policemen to eventually accept the new Nazi regime in 1933.

  • Adolf Hitler: Key Dates

    Article

    Under Adolf Hitler's leadership and imbued with his racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the mass murder of 6 million Jews and millions of other victims.

    Adolf Hitler: Key Dates
  • Jewish Community Life in Munkacs
  • German territorial losses, Treaty of Versailles, 1919

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    Germany lost World War I. In the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, the victorious powers (the United States, Great Britain, France, and other allied states) imposed punitive territorial, military, and economic provisions on defeated Germany. In the west, Germany returned Alsace-Lorraine to France. It had been seized by Germany more than 40 years earlier. Further, Belgium received Eupen and Malmedy; the industrial Saar region was placed under the administration of the League of Nations for 15 years; and Denmark received Northern Schleswig. Finally, the Rhineland was demilitarized; that is, no German military forces or fortifications were permitted there. In the east, Poland received parts of West Prussia and Silesia from Germany. In addition, Czechoslovakia received the Hultschin district from Germany; the largely German city of Danzig became a free city under the protection of the League of Nations; and Memel, a small strip of territory in East Prussia along the Baltic Sea, was ultimately placed under Lithuanian control. Outside Europe, Germany lost all its colonies. In sum, Germany forfeited 13 percent of its European territory (more than 27,000 square miles) and one-tenth of its population (between 6.5 and 7 million people).

    German territorial losses, Treaty of Versailles, 1919
  • Sarah Judelowitz

    ID Card

    Sarah, born Sarah Gamper, was one of four children born to a Jewish family in the Baltic port city of Liepaja. Her parents owned a general store there. At the outbreak of World War I, Sarah was studying piano at a conservatory in Russia. During World War I, she remained there to serve as a nurse. She returned to Liepaja, and after marrying Herman Judelowitz in 1920, settled there.

    1933-39: Sarah and Herman operated a shoe store in the front of their small shoe workshop. By 1935 they had three daughters, Fanny, Jenny and Liebele. Sarah and Herman were Zionists and they often helped collect money for Jewish settlers to buy land in Palestine.

    1940-43: In June 1941 the Germans reached Latvia and occupied Liepaja. That July, Herman was murdered by the Germans in a nearby village. For two years, Sarah and her daughters managed to avoid deportation because Fanny had protected status as a nurse. But in October 1943 they were deported to Kaiserwald, near Riga. On arriving, the deportees were divided--those able to work on one side, the infirm and the young on the other. Eight-year-old Liebele was sent with the young. Sarah would not abandon Liebele and followed.

    Sarah and Liebele were never heard from again.

    Tags: Latvia
    Sarah Judelowitz
  • The 42nd Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners in deplorable conditions. Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. The soldiers reacted in shock and disbelief to the evidence of Nazi atrocities. In addition to burying the dead, the Allied forces attempted to help and comfort the survivors with food, clothing and medical assistance.

  • The 84th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    In 1985, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the US Army's Center of Military History began a program to honor US Army divisions that took part in the liberation of Nazi camps. To date, 36 divisions, including the 84th Infantry Division, have been recognized as liberating units.

  • An Overview of the Holocaust: Topics to Teach

    Article

    Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust.

    An Overview of the Holocaust: Topics to Teach
  • Artist on the Blacklist: Ludwig Meidner

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the writings thrown onto to the flames were political texts, literature, and even art books by or about such noted figures as Ludwig Meidner.

    Artist on the Blacklist: Ludwig Meidner
  • John Dos Passos

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of John Dos Passos.

    John Dos Passos
  • Stefan Zweig

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Stefan Zweig. 

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