The 90th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Flossenbürg concentration camp in 1945.
Learn about the administration and commandants of the Auschwitz camp complex in German-occupied Poland.
After WWII and the fall of the Nazi regime, Holocaust survivors faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. Listen to six survivors tell their stories.
Learn about the origins and legacy of Pastor Martin Niemöller's famous postwar words, “First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out…”
Jewish people have lived in Germany since the Middle Ages. Learn more about Jewish life, identity, and culture in Germany before the Nazis came to power.
The Diary of Anne Frank is often the first exposure readers have to the history of the Holocaust. Learn about Anne's diary, including excerpts and images.
The 2nd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Leipzig-Schönefeld and Spergau/Zöschen in 1945.
The 84th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two Neuengamme subcamps, Hannover-Ahlem and Salzwedel, in 1945.
The 83rd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Langenstein subcamp of Buchenwald in 1945.
In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of boo...
Ernst Toller was one of the best-known German dramatists of the 1920s. He wrote against Nazism, and was among those whose works were burned under the Nazi regime.
Fascism is a far-right political philosophy, or theory of government, that emerged in the early twentieth century. Fascism prioritizes the nation over the individual, who exists to serve the nation. While fascist mo...
The 30th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Weferlingen subcamp of Buchenwald in 1945.
Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.
Sighet (known today as Sighetu Marmatiei), a town in Transylvania, was part of Romania followi...
Ernest Hemingway was a legendary American author. In 1933, his classic novel, "A Farewell to Arms," was burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg was a German general who gained ren...
Julien Bryan’s ten-minute film Siege, first non-Nazi produced footage of the start of WWII, records horror and chaos in Warsaw following the German invasion.
A relief organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC or Joint) was established in 1914. Learn about its activities before, during, and after WWII.
Hungary after World War I Hungary had been on the losing side of World War I. After the announcement of punitive peace terms to be imposed on Hungary (which included the loss of 66 percent of Hungary's prewar territory) were announced in 1919, the postwar coalition government resigned. The reins of power fell to a Socialist-Communist coalition under Communist leader Bela Kun. Kun proceeded to establish a short-lived "Soviet Republic." When the Kun regime collapsed following a Romanian invasion in June…
Explore Jacob Weiner’s biography and learn about his experiences during Kristallnacht in Würzburg, Germany.
Otto Dix was a German artist who depicted the horrors of war. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition. Learn more.
When WWII began, most Americans wanted the US to stay isolated from the war. From December 1941, the majority rallied in support of intervention to defeat the Axis powers.
At Babyn Yar in late September 1941, SS and German police units and their auxiliaries perpetrated one of the largest massacres of World War II.
The 82nd Airborne Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Wöbbelin subcamp of Neuengamme in 1945.
Walther Rathenau was a liberal democratic politician and the first Jew to hold a cabinet post in Germany. His books were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Adolf Hitler was determined to overturn the military and territorial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. Learn more about Nazi German territorial aggression before WWII.
The 80th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Buchenwald and the Ebensee subcamp of Mauthausen in 1945.
Rosa Luxemburg was a Marxist and a leader of the radical wing of the German Social Democratic Party. Her work was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Recommended resources, topics, context, rationale, and critical thinking questions if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust.
Although there is no agreement about the origins of Freemasonry, one long-held belief is that it originated in England and Scotland during the early Renaissance with the cathedral building guilds. Originally the guilds were formed to help their members gain employment and to uphold standards of craftsmanship. Various skill levels were distinguished, among other ways, through the use of secret handshakes and symbols. In addition to learning the craft, members of the guilds also received esoteric knowledge,…
Read more about the principles, goals, and strategies of Nazi propaganda.
Carl von Ossietzky was a German journalist, pacifist, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate whose articles were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1933.
The Transcarpathian region of Ukraine is an area known historically as Subcarpathian Rus. Jews first came to Subcarpathian Rus, then covering the four northeastern counties of the Hungarian kingdom, from Poland in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They were fleeing the Chmielnicki massacres. Jewish immigration into Subcarpathian Rus increased after the Partitions of Poland in the late eighteenth century. The Region The conservativism and traditionalism of the Jews of Subcarpathian Rus resulted…
The US Army Signal Corps had a crucial role in documenting—in both film and photographs—the atrocities perpetrated during the Holocaust.
Learn about some key dates in the life of Adolf Hitler, one of Europe's most ruthless dictators, who led the Nazis from 1921 and Germany from 1933-45.
Helen Keller was an author, suffragist, and disability rights advocate. Her socialist and anti-war writing was burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
During the Holocaust, some children went into hiding to escape Nazi persecution. They faced constant fear, dilemmas, and danger.
The Nazi Party was one of a number of right-wing extremist political groups that emerged in Germany following World War I. Learn about the Nazi rise to power.
Ernest Hemingway in his World War I Red Cross Ambulance Corps uniform, ca. 1918.
The 8th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Wöbbelin subcamp of Neuengamme in 1945.
Overview: Klaus Barbie was the chief of the Gestapo in Lyon, France, a vital center of the Fre...
The Anschluss, Germany's annexation of Austria in March 1938, was the Nazi German regime’s first act of territorial aggression and expansion. Learn more.
Brief overview of the charges against Hermann Göring, highest ranking Nazi official tried during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
Economic, governmental, and political life in the Jewish community of Kalisz between World War and World War II.
Book burnings and bans were not exclusive to—and did not end with—the Nazi regime. Learn more about the symbolism of book burnings.
In Nazi Germany, German military personnel swore an oath directly to Adolf Hitler. Learn about the oath and its impact.
Robert Kempner was a successful lawyer in Berlin during the 1920s who then became the chief legal advisor to the Prussian police. Kempner participated in the investigation and prosecution of Adolf Hitler and Wilhelm Frick in 1924, following Hitler's attempt to overthrow the German government in the Beer Hall Putsch. At the time he recommended the dissolution of the Nazi Party. Expelled from Germany After the Nazi rise to power in 1933, Hermann Göring fired Kempner from his position because of his…
Nicholas Winton organized a rescue operation that brought hundreds of children, mostly Jewish, to safety in Great Britain before WWII. Listen to his accounts.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.