<p>The defendants rise as the judges enter the courtroom at the <a href="/narrative/9366/en">International Military Tribunal</a> trial of war criminals at Nuremberg.</p>

Julius Streicher

In the immediate aftermath of the Holocaust, the world was faced with a challenge—how to hold individually accountable those German leaders who were responsible for the commission of monstrous crimes against humanity and international peace. The International Military Tribunal (IMT) held in Nuremberg, Germany, attempted to face this immense challenge. On October 18, 1945, the chief prosecutors of the IMT brought charges against 24 leading German officials, among them Julius Streicher.

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Trained as an elementary school teacher, Julius Streicher (1885–1946) was an early member of the Nazi Party. In 1923, he founded the virulently antisemitic and racist newspaper, Der Stuermer. Streicher was a leading organizer of Nazi Germany's first official nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933. Although Streicher had lost credibility in party circles by 1940, he continued to edit and distribute his antisemitic propaganda newspaper to hundreds of thousands of Germans.

For his influential role in inciting hatred and violence, the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg indicated Streicher on count four, crimes against humanity. Streicher was found guilty and sentenced to death. He was hanged on October 16, 1946.

Defendant Julius Streicher, editor of the antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer, on the stand at the International Military Tribunal trial of Major War Criminals at Nuremberg.

Defendant Julius Streicher, editor of the antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer, on the stand at the International Military Tribunal trial of Major War Criminals at Nuremberg. - National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD