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An estimated 523,000 Jews were living in Germany when the Nazis rose to power in January 1933.
A first-grade class at a Jewish school. Cologne, Germany, 1929-1930.
Pre-emigration training: young Jews in a cooking class in the Theodor Herzl School sponsored by the Jewish community. Berlin, Germany, between 1930 and 1939.
Training for emigration to Palestine: a math class at the Caputh Agricultural School. Berlin, Germany, 1930–39.
Girls in a sewing class at the Adas Israel school, maintained by the German Jewish community. Berlin, Germany, 1930s.
Jewish athletes at a sports festival in Grunewald stadium, Berlin. After Adolf Hitler took power, Jews were not allowed to be members of German athletic clubs. Berlin, Germany, 1934.
Jewish children gathered for a sporting event in a summer camp organized by the Reich Union of Jewish Frontline Soldiers. Germany, between 1934 and 1936.
The Reich Union of Jewish Frontline Soldiers organized summer camps and sports activities for Jewish children. Germany, between 1934 and 1936.
Class photo of students and a teacher at a Jewish school in prewar Karlsruhe. Germany, July 1937.
A concert in the Oranienburger Street synagogue organized by the Cultural Society of German Jews. Berlin, Germany, 1938.
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