Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.
Soviet photographer Yevgeny Khaldei stands on top of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin where he, along with a few Soviet soldiers, raised the Soviet flag. Berlin, Germany, May 1945.
Group portrait of members of the Freemasons Lodge of Chernovtsy, Bukovina, approximately 75 percent of whom were Jewish. The members were mainly intellectuals and leaders in business and local government. Among those pictured are Dr. Max Ennis (top row, third from the left); pharmacist, Dr. Abraham Guttman (top row, far right); an official in the revenue service, Dr. Max Gottfried (second row from the top, sixth from the left); and the judge, Dr. Jacob Rubel (third row from the top, far left). Chernovtsy,…
June 30-July 2, 1934. On this date, Adolf Hitler ordered the Röhm Purge (also known as the "Night of the Long Knives").
Friedrich Engels was a philosopher and political economist. He co-authored communist and socialist books with Karl Marx. His work was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
Leon Trotsky was a communist and close associate of Vladimir Lenin. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933. Learn more.
Paul Klee was a German-Swiss painter and graphic artist who taught at the Bauhaus. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition.
Theodore Dreiser was an American author of naturalist fiction. Censorship and bans accompanied him all his life. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
August Bebel was a German socialist and founder of the Social Democratic Workers’ Party. His work was burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
German Jewish writer Alfred Kerr was a well known theater critic during the Weimar period. His works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933.
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