<p>Family portrait of the Gartenberg family in Drohobycz, Poland. None of those pictured would survive the Holocaust. Photograph taken in 1930. </p>
<p>Top row: Julius Gartenberg, Anna Fern, Bernard Klinger, Ona Fern and Izador Gartenberg. Lower row: Marcus Gartenberg, Hinda Gartenberg with her grandaughter Tony Schwartz on her lap, Sol Schwartz, and Ida Fern.</p>

Jewish Losses during the Holocaust: By Country

Before the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, Europe had a vibrant and mature Jewish culture. By 1945, most European Jews—two out of every three—had been killed.

When attempting to document numbers of victims of the Holocaust, the single most important thing to keep in mind  is that no one master list of those who perished exists anywhere in the world. The estimates of today might rise or fall as new documents are discovered or as historians arrive at a more precise understanding of events.

The best estimates for Jewish losses country by country are offered below. All figures are estimates and subject to change with the discovery of new documentation. 


Jewish population in 1937: approximately 200
Deaths: unknown


Jewish population of Austria in 1938: 185,026
Deaths: 65,459


Jewish population of Belgium in 1939: 90,000
Deaths: 24,387


Jewish population of Bulgaria in 1937: 50,000
Deaths: unknown


Jewish population of Czechoslovakia in 1921: 354,000
Deaths: 260,000

Jewish population in 1939: 2,363
Deaths: at least 360

Jewish population in 1930: 117,551
Deaths: 77,297

Jewish population in 1940: 88,951
Deaths: approximately 60,000

Hungarian-occupied Southern Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus
Jewish population in 1939: 142,000–148,000
Deaths: 114,000–120,000


Jewish population of Denmark in 1937: 7,500
Deaths: 52–116


Jewish population of Estonia in 1937: 4,500
Deaths: 963


Jewish population of France in 1937: 300,000–330,000
Deaths: 72,900–74,000


Jewish population of Germany in 1939: 237,723
Deaths: 165,200


Jewish population of Greece in 1941: 71,611
Deaths: 58,800–65,000

Bulgarian-Occupied Thrace
Deaths: 4,221


Jewish population of Hungary in 1937: 490,621
Deaths: 297,621

Hungary (borders of 1941)
Jewish population: 825,007
Deaths: 564,507


Jewish population of Italy in 1938: 58,412
Jewish population in German-occupied Italy: approximately 43,000
Deaths: 7,858


Jewish population of Latvia in 1939: 93,479
Deaths: 70,000


Jewish population of Lithuania in 1937: 153,000
Deaths: 130,000


Jewish population of Luxembourg in May 1940: 3,500–5,000
Deaths: 1,200


Jewish population of the Netherlands in May 1940: 140,245
Deaths: 102,000


Jewish population of Norway in April 1940: approximately 1,800
Deaths: at least 758


Jewish population of Poland in 1937: 3,350,000
Deaths: 2,770,000–3,000,000


Jewish population of Romania in 1930: 756,930
Deaths: 211,214–260,000

Hungarian-occupied Northern Transylvania
Deaths: 90,295

Bessarabia and Bukovina
Jewish population in 1930: 314,000
Jewish population in 1941: 185,000
Deaths: 103,919–130,000

Soviet Union

Jewish population of the Soviet Union in 1939: 3,028,538
Deaths: approximately 1,340,000


Jewish population of Yugoslavia in 1941: 82,242
Deaths: 67,228

Slovenia (German-occupied)
Jewish population in 1937: 1,500
Deaths: 1,300

Serbia with Banat and Sandžak (German-occupied)
Jewish population in 1937: 17,200
Deaths 15,060

Macedonia (Bulgarian-occupied)
Jewish population in 1941: 7,762
Deaths: 6,982

Pirot, Serbia (Bulgarian-occupied)
Deaths: 140

Albanian-annexed Kosovo 
Jewish population in 1937: 550
Deaths: 210

Croatia with Dalmatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina
Jewish population in 1937: 39,400
Deaths: 30,148

Montenegro (German-occupied)
Jewish population in 1937: 30
Deaths: 28

Backa and Baranja (Hungarian-annexed)
Jewish population in 1937: 16,000
Deaths: 13,500

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