Certificate of Polish citizenship (inside)

Many refugees had difficulties replacing lost or invalidated personal identification documents. The certificate of Polish citizenship shown here was valid in place of a passport. A Polish Jewish refugee used this certificate to travel legally from Lithuania, through the Soviet Union, to Japan. It contains the Curacao notation needed to obtain Soviet and Japanese visas. The bearer of this certificate aimed to reach Palestine, but ended up spending most of the war in Calcutta, India, part of the British Commonwealth of Nations. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]


  • US Holocaust Memorial Museum - Collections
  • US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Henry Taca

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Certificate of Polish citizenship (inside) [LCID: 200008yu]