During the interwar period Dr. Susanne Engelmann served as the principal of a large public high school for girls in Berlin. This letter notified her of her dismissal, as a "non-Aryan," from her teaching position. The dismissal was in compliance with the Civil Service Law of April 7, 1933.
On April 7, the German government issued the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums), which excluded Jews and political opponents from all civil service positions.
What can documents such as this one tell us about life in Berlin in the months following the Nazi rise to power?
Why are artifacts, documents, and photographs important historical evidence?
What questions does this letter raise for you?
Use the Museum's website and Collections to learn more about anti-Jewish legislation from 1933–1939.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.