An American GI using his steel helmet to draw water from a stream during the Battle of the Bulge. December 22, 1944. US Army Signal Corps photograph taken by J Malan Heslop.
Friedrich Hoffman, holding a stack of death records, testifies about the murder of 324 Catholic priests who were exposed to malaria during Nazi medical experiments at the Dachau concentration camp. Dachau, Germany, November 22, 1945.
Wladislava Karolewska, a victim of medical experiments at the Ravensbrück camp, was one of four Polish women who appeared as prosecution witnesses at the Doctors Trial. Nuremberg, Germany, December 22, 1946.
Concentration camp survivor Jadwiga Dzido shows her scarred leg to the Nuremberg court, while an expert medical witness explains the nature of the procedures inflicted on her in the Ravensbrück concentration camp on November 22, 1942. The experiments, including injections of highly potent bacteria, were performed by defendants Herta Oberheuser and Fritz Ernst Fischer. December 20, 1946.
Rufus Jones (seated) and Clarence Pickett were chairman and executive secretary of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), respectively. They are pictured here at a Quaker meeting in Philadelphia. The AFSC assisted Jewish and Christian European refugees. Philadelphia, United States, January 22, 1943.
French leader Charles de Gaulle in London after France signed an armistice with Germany on June 22, 1940. De Gaulle refused to accept the armistice and led the Free France resistance movement. London, Great Britain, June 25, 1940.
Polish-Jewish refugees seeking to leave Europe arrive in Lisbon. Following the German invasion of France, Jewish and non-Jewish refugee assistance organizations relocated their headquarters to Lisbon, the only neutral European port from which refugees could depart to North and South America. Lisbon, Portugal, June 21-22, 1940.
German citizens stand outside the decorated Hotel Dreesen, where Neville Chamberlain and Hitler held their second meeting on the Sudetenland and German demands for Czech territory. Nazi flags and the Union Jack fly from the building. Bad Godesberg, Germany, September 22, 1938.
President Bill Clinton (center), Elie Wiesel (right), and Harvey Meyerhoff (left) light the eternal flame outside on the Eisenhower Plaza during the dedication ceremony of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. April 22, 1993.
Germans guard prisoners in the Rovno camp for Soviet prisoners of war. Rovno, Poland, after June 22, 1941. Second only to the Jews, Soviet prisoners of war were the largest group of victims of Nazi racial policy.
The White Rose, led by students including Hans and Sophie Scholl, was an anti-Nazi group during WWII. Its members spread leaflets denouncing the regime.
Crossing the Rhine River allowed US and British troops to advance into the interior of Germany, helping to bring about the defeat of the Third Reich in WWII
Jack London was an American author who wrote “The Call of the Wild.” His socialist leaning works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Born to Jewish parents in Poland, Gisha Galina Bursztyn moved to the city of Warsaw after she married. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Warsaw fell four weeks later, and a ghetto was set up in November 1940. During a massive roundup i...
Soviet authorities issued this receipt, in Russian, to Moshe Zupnik for the rubles they confiscated from him before he left the Soviet Union. Soviet authorities routinely confiscated most rubles and other valuables from Jewish refugees before they boarded steamers bound for Japan and left the Soviet Union. Vladivostok, Soviet Union, January 22, 1941. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
The Soviet Union occupied Lvov in September 1939, according to secret provisions of the German-Soviet Pact. Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, occupying Lvov within a week. The Germans claimed that the city's Jewish population had supported the Soviets. Ukrainian mobs went on a rampage against Jews. They stripped and beat Jewish women and men in the streets of Lvov. Ukrainian partisans supported by German authorities killed about 4,000 Jews in Lvov during this pogrom. US forces discovered…
A family of Macedonian Jews in the Tobacco Monopoly transit camp in Skopje before deportation. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The Macedonian Jews were kept there between eleven and eighteen days,…
Deportation of Jews from Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The Macedonian Jews were kept there between eleven and eighteen days, before being deported by train in three transports between March 22 and 29, to Treblinka.
Nazi Germany waged a war of annihilation against the Soviet Union. This included brutally treating Soviet POWs and murdering them on a mass scale. Learn more.
German troops overran Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France in six weeks starting in May 1940. Anti-Jewish measures soon followed in occupied western Europe.
Learn about Amsterdam during World War II and the Holocaust, including deportations of Jews to concentration camps and killing centers.
Hitler was determined to overturn the military and territorial provisions of the Versailles treaty, among it was much resented loss of the city of Danzig after WWI.
Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940. Read more about this invasion, the collaborator Vidkun Quisling, and the tragic fate of Norway’s Jews.
Key dates in the history of the Sachsenhausen camp in the Nazi camp system, from its establishment in 1936 to the postwar trial of camp staff in 1947.
The Flick Case was Case #5 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
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