Bodies of US soldiers killed by Waffen SS troops during the Malmedy Massacre on December 17, 1944. Photograph taken in January 1945.
Shlamke and Shanke Minuskin pose with their baby son, Henikel, in the garden of their home. Zhetel, Poland, 1938.
Civilians flee Warsaw following the German invasion of Poland.
Hundreds of thousands of both Jewish refugees and non-Jewish refugees fled the advancing German army into eastern Poland, hoping that the Polish army would halt the German advance in the west. Many of the refugees fled without a specific destination in mind. They traveled on foot or by any available transport—cars, bicycles, carts, or trucks—clogging roads to the east. Most took only what they could carry.
Zsofi Brunn and members of her family were deported from Hungary to Auschwitz-Birkenau in June 1944. Her husband and mother were killed upon arrival. Zsofi and her daughter Anna were transferred to a labor camp in Czechosovakia. They were eventually liberated by Soviet forces in May 1945. Zsofi and Anna returned to Hungary. They moved to Rakosszentmihaly, near Budapest. There, Anna finished high school, and Zsofi directed a Jewish orphanage.
This photo shows Zsofi (back row, center) posing with the orphans under her care in an orphanage located in Rakosszentmihaly and sponsored by the Joint Distribution Committe.
Zsofi directed this orphanage from 1946 to 1948. The children had all been hidden during the Holocaust. Zsofi worked with the Zionist underground to move the children to Israel. In 1948 an informant told the government about her activities, and she had to flee to Germany.
Henry Morgenthau, Jr., testifies before the Senate Foreign Relations Commission in support of the Lend-Lease bill to aid Britain. Morgenthau was secretary of the treasury under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Lend-Lease was the name of the US policy of extending material aid to the Allies before and after the United States entered World War II.
Aerial photograph of a Fascist rally in Merano, Italy, 1935–37.
From the start, jazz music was often associated with race all over the world. Begging the question, could the spirit of jazz stand against racial oppression?
Jazz was described as “musical dictatorship over the masses,” “utterly impoverished,” and “culturally repulsive.” In the early 1920s, African American jazz artists could not break through the racial divide in the US, so they took to Europe where they could perform with ever-growing popularity. The cultural movement of this music threatened the expansion of Nazi ideology, which deemed this music to be immoral. By the mid-1930s Nazi authorities banned all foreign, non-Aryan music in Germany.
The campaign to rid the country of jazz did not stop American artists from going abroad to share their art. For African American horn and piano player Freddy Johnson, who was on tour, the threat became real. In December 1941, he was arrested in German-occupied Amsterdam and interned at the Tittmoning prisoner-of-war camp.
Once in awhile, despite the oppression of prisoners in the camps across German-occupied Europe, the sounds of jazz could be heard. For many, musical talents helped them survive another day.
In February 1944, Johnson was released from the camp in a prisoner exchange.
During World War II, African American and white soldiers who were bonded on the battlefield were divided at home. The US 12th Armored Division was one of only ten US divisions during World War II that had integrated combat companies.
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