Nazi Germany’s territorial expansion and the radicalization of Nazi anti-Jewish policies triggered a mass exodus. Learn about the US and the refugee crisis of 1938–41.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Heidenheim DP camp.
Policemen stand outside the shuttered Eldorado nightclub, long frequented by Berlin's gay and lesbian community. The Nazi government quickly closed the establishment down and pasted pro-Nazi election posters on the building. Berlin, Germany, March 5, 1933. Learn more about this photograph.
View of the wall surrounding the cemetery of the Hadamar euthanasia killing center. Jagged pieces of glass were placed on the wall to discourage observers. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation of Hadamar. Germany, April 5, 1945.
Four days after the outbreak of World War II, Secretary of State Cordell Hull signs the Neutrality Proclamation (first signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt) at the State Department. Washington, DC, United States, September 5, 1939.
German children read an anti-Jewish propaganda book for children titled Der Giftpilz (The Poisonous Mushroom). The girl on the left holds a companion volume, the translated title of which is "Trust No Fox." Germany, ca. 1938. (Source record ID: E39 Nr .2381/5)
Some of the nursing staff of the "euthanasia" clinic at Hadamar stand outside of the institution after the arrival of US forces, April 5, 1945. Irmgard Huber, the head nurse of the clinic, is probably the person standing fifth from the right. © IWM EA 62183
As the Nazis conducted the...
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Sobibor killing center in the General Government, the German-administered territory of occupied Poland.
Auschwitz, Dachau, the Warsaw ghetto... These are names that resonate...
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.