Group portrait of former Bielski partisans from Nowogrodek taken in the Foehrenwald displaced persons camp. Germany, April 3, 1948.
The defendants in the dock during the Justice Case, Case #3 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Nuremberg, Germany, 1947.
Witness Zivia Lubetkin Zuckerman testifies during the trial of Adolf Eichmann. Jerusalem, Israel. May 3, 1961.
View of prisoners' barracks soon after the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp. Dachau, Germany, May 3, 1945.
German troops arriving in Norway by ship prepare for landing during the German invasion of Norway. May 3, 1940.
German troops disembarking from a troop transport during the German invasion of Norway. May 3, 1940.
German troops and planes on an improvised airfield during the battle for Norway, May 3, 1940.
Hitler addresses German troops at the market square in Eger, during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland region. October 3, 1938.
Announcement dropped by American planes on Shanghai near the end of the war. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Trawniki in German-occupied Poland.
German physicians conducted inhumane experiments on prisoners in the camps during the Holocaust. Learn more about Nazi medical experiments during WW2.
The Kielce pogrom was a violent massacre in the town of Kielce, Poland in 1946. Learn more about the events that led up to the attack and the aftermath.
The Columbia-Haus camp was one of the early camps established by the Nazi regime. It held primarily political detainees. Learn more about the history of the camp.
Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.
Refugees aboard the St. Louis wait to hear whether Cuba will grant them entry. Off the coast of Havana, Cuba, June 3, 1939.
Aerial photograph showing the gas chambers and crematoria 2 and 3 at the Auschwitz-Birkenau (Auschwitz II) killing center. Auschwitz, Poland, August 25, 1944.
The Norwegian town of Elverum, near the Swedish border, burns after a German bombing mission during the invasion of Norway. Elverum, Norway, May 3, 1940.
This building in the town of Elverum, near Oslo, was damaged during a bombing raid following the German invasion of Norway. Elverum, Norway, May 3, 1940.
A group of German and Austrian Jewish refugee children arrives in New York on board the SS President Harding. New York, United States, June 3, 1939.
American Olympic runner Jesse Owens and other Olympic athletes compete in the twelfth heat of the first trial of the 100m dash. Berlin, Germany, August 3, 1936.
In the aftermath of the Munich agreement, which turned the Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia over to Germany, German troops march into the town square of Friedland. October 3, 1938.
Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about WWII and genocide in Europe.
Today, a body of international criminal law exists to prosecute perpetrators of mass atrocities. Learn about principles and precedents from the Nuremberg Charter and the IMT.
Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1943 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.