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  • Antisemitism: Oral History Excerpts

    Media Essay

    The word antisemitism means prejudice against or hatred of Jews. The Holocaust is history’s most extreme example of antisemitism. In these oral histories, survivors...

  • Rosh Hashanah card


    Sorle and Shalomis Gorfinkel presented this card to their parents on the occasion of Rosh Hashanah 5704, the Jewish New Year 1943. The Gorfinkel family was part of the Mir Yeshiva community in Shanghai.

    Rosh Hashanah card
  • Antisemitic graffiti


    Antisemitic graffiti on a shop window: "The Jewish parasite sold Norway on the 9th of April."  April 9 was the day of the German invasion in 1940. Norway, ca. 1940.

    Antisemitic graffiti
  • Ernst Kaltenbrunner


    1943 photograph of SS General Ernst Kaltenbrunner, who served as head of the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) and as chief of Nazi Security Police (Sipo) and the Security Service (SD). 

    Ernst Kaltenbrunner
  • Book burning in Berlin


    At Berlin's Opernplatz (Opera Square), an SA man throws books into the flames at the public burning of books deemed "un-German." This image is a still from a motion picture. Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.

    Book burning in Berlin
  • Bertolt Brecht


    Bertolt Brecht (left), Marxist poet and dramatist, was a staunch opponent of the Nazis. He fled Germany shortly after Hitler's rise to power. Pictured here with his son, Stefan. Germany, 1931.

    Bertolt Brecht
  • Caring for survivors of Wöbbelin


    Survivors of the Wöbbelin camp wait for evacuation to an American field hospital where they will receive medical attention. Germany, May 4-6, 1945.

    Caring for survivors of Wöbbelin
  • Funeral for victims of Wöbbelin


    After the liberation of the Wöbbelin camp, US troops forced the townspeople of Ludwigslust to bury the bodies of prisoners killed in the camp. This photo shows US troops assembled at the mass funeral in Ludwigslust. Germany, May 7, 1945.

    Funeral for victims of Wöbbelin
  • Tribute to Holocaust Survivors


    View of a ceremony held during the Museum's Tribute to Holocaust Survivors: Reunion of a Special Family, one of the United States Holocaust Museum's tenth anniversary events. Flags of the liberating divisions form the backdrop to the ceremony. Washington, DC, November 2003.

    Tags: remembrance
    Tribute to Holocaust Survivors
  • Crossing the Rhine


    GIs keep low inside a landing craft during an assault across the Rhine at Oberwesel, Germany. March 22, 1945. US Army Signal Corps photograph.

    Crossing the Rhine
  • Liberation of Paris


    Men of the 2nd French Armored Division attack the Chamber of Deputies, one of the last German stongholds, during the battle to liberate the French capital. Paris, France, August 1944.

    Liberation of Paris
  • Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski


    Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski, Jewish council chairman in the Lodz ghetto, seen here speaking amongst Jewish ghetto policemen. Lodz, Poland, ca. 1942.

    Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski
  • First day of school


    Berta Rosenheim poses with a large cone, traditionally filled with sweets and stationery, on her first day of school. Leipzig, Germany, April 1929.

    First day of school
  • Arriving in New York


    Children aboard the President Harding look at the Statue of Liberty as they pull into New York harbor. They were brought to the United States by Gilbert and Eleanor Kraus. New York, United States, June 1939.

    Arriving in New York
  • Soviet prisoners of war


    Columns of Soviet prisoners of war. Soviet Union, September 15, 1942. Second only to the Jews, Soviet prisoners of war were the largest group of victims of Nazi racial policy.

    Soviet prisoners of war
  • Boarding the SS Mouzinho


    Jewish refugees board the SS Mouzinho for the voyage to the United States. Among these refugees is a group of Jewish children recently rescued from internment camps in France. Lisbon, Portugal, ca. June 10, 1941.

    Tags: Portugal
    Boarding the SS Mouzinho
  • Ruins of the Warsaw ghetto


    A view of the wall surrounding the ruins of the Warsaw ghetto in German-occupied Poland a few months after the ghetto's destruction. Photograph taken ca. June-October 1943. 

    Ruins of the Warsaw ghetto
  • Gregor Wohlfahrt

    ID Card

    Gregor was the second of six children born to Catholic parents in a village in the part of Austria known as Carinthia. His father was a farmer and quarryman. Disillusioned with Catholicism, his parents became Jehovah's Witnesses and raised their children according to that religion. As a boy, Gregor loved mountain climbing and skiing. 1933-39: Gregor attended school and worked as a waiter. The situation for Jehovah's Witnesses worsened after Germany annexed Austria in March 1938; Witnesses refused to swear…

    Gregor Wohlfahrt
  • Permit for stay in Japan


    Japanese authorities issued this "Permit for stay in Japan" to Ruth Segal (Rys Berkowicz). After several unsuccessful attempts to obtain visas for the United States, Ruth's father was able to secure a visa for her to go to New Zealand, in the British Commonwealth of Nations. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Tags: Japan refugees
    Permit for stay in Japan
  • Census Card


    On December 17, 1941, the Romanian government issued a decree requiring a census of all those with “Jewish blood.” All persons having one or two Jewish parents or two Jewish grandparents were ordered to register at the Central Jewish Office. This is a census certificate issued by that office in 1942.

    Census Card
  • Auschwitz - ID Card/Oral History

    Media Essay

    The Auschwiz camp complex was the largest of its kind established by the Nazi regime. Auschwitz consisted of three main camps, including a killing center. More than 1.1 million people were murdered at Auschwitz. Individuals not sent directly to th...

    Tags: Auschwitz
  • Evidence Tag


    Evidence tag from the trial of Klaus Barbie in Lyon, France. This standard police form lists Barbie's infractions as crimes against humanity and complicity, concepts defined at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg decades earlier. The line in which the victims' names would be recorded is left blank. February 25, 1983.

    Evidence Tag
  • Liberation of Bergen-Belsen


    After British soldiers liberated the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany, they forced the remaining SS guards to help bury the dead. Here, survivors of the camp taunt their former tormentors, who prepare to bury victims in a mass grave.

    Liberation of Bergen-Belsen
  • Liberation of Mauthausen


    The Mauthausen concentration camp was established shortly after the German annexation of Austria (1938). Prisoners in the camp were forced to perform crushing labor in a nearby stone quarry and, later, to construct subterranean tunnels for rocket assembly factories. US forces liberated the camp in May 1945. In this footage, starving survivors of the Mauthausen concentration camp eat soup and scramble for potatoes.

    Liberation of Mauthausen
  • Conditions in the Warsaw ghetto


    The Nazis sealed the Warsaw ghetto in mid-November 1940. German-induced overcrowding and food shortages led to an extremely high mortality rate in the ghetto. Almost 30 percent of the population of Warsaw was packed into 2.4 percent of the city's area. The Germans set a food ration for Jews at just 181 calories a day. By August 1941, more than 5,000 people a month succumbed to starvation and disease.

    Conditions in the Warsaw ghetto

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