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  • The Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution"

    Article

    On January 20, 1942, fifteen high-ranking Nazi Party and German government leaders gathered for an important meeting. They met in a wealthy section of Berlin at a villa by a lake known as Wannsee. Reinhard Heydrich, who was SS chief Heinrich Himmler's head deputy, held the meeting for the purpose of discussing the "final solution to the Jewish question in Europe" with key non-SS government leaders, including the secretaries of the Foreign Ministry and Justice, whose cooperation was needed. The "Final…

    The Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution"
  • Charles Bedzow

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Charles Bedzow.

    Charles Bedzow
  • Bosnia

    Article

    In July 1995, Bosnian Serb forces killed as many as 8,000 Bosniaks from Srebrenica. It was the largest massacre in Europe since the Holocaust.

    Bosnia
  • Advertisement for the Violetta women's club

    Document

    A newspaper advertisement for the Damenklub Violetta, a Berlin club frequented by lesbians, 1928. Before the Nazis came to power in 1933, lesbian communities and networks flourished in Germany.

    Advertisement for the Violetta women's club
  • Soviet and US Troops Meet at Torgau

    Timeline Event

    April 25, 1945. On this date, Soviet and American troops met at Torgau, Germany.

    Soviet and US Troops Meet at Torgau
  • At the Killing Centers

    Article

    After deportation trains arrived at the killing centers, guards ordered the deportees to get out and form a line. The victims then went through a selection process. Men were separated from women and children. A Nazi, usually an SS physician, looked quickly at each person to decide if he or she was healthy and strong enough for forced labor. This SS officer then pointed to the left or the right; victims did not know that individuals were being selected to live or die. Babies and young children, pregnant…

    At the Killing Centers
  • German Surrender

    Timeline Event

    May 7, 1945. On this date, German armed forces surrendered unconditionally to Allied forces in the west.

    German Surrender
  • Liberation: An Overview

    Article

    Learn more about the end of Nazi tyranny in Europe and the liberation of camps and other sites of Nazi crimes. This article includes dates of liberation of some of the camps.

    Liberation: An Overview
  • Columbia-Haus

    Article

    The Columbia-Haus camp was one of the early camps established by the Nazi regime. It held primarily political detainees. Learn more about the history of the camp.

  • World War I and its Aftermath: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of World War I and its aftermath. Learn about the conflict and its divisive peace.

    World War I and its Aftermath: Key Dates
  • Axis Powers in World War II

    Article

    The three principal partners in the Axis alliance were Germany, Italy, and Japan. Learn more about the Axis powers in WW2.

    Axis Powers in World War II
  • The Eastern Front: The German War against the Soviet Union

    Article

    Nazi Germany and its allies invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. They quickly conquered large expanses of Soviet territory. German forces waged a “war of annihilation” against the Soviet Union and its peoples, killing millions of civilians. However, the Soviet armed forces eventually pushed the German military back and finally conquered Berlin in spring 1945. Often referred to as the “eastern front,” the German-Soviet theater of war was the largest and deadliest of World War II.

    The Eastern Front: The German War against the Soviet Union
  • Chelmno

    Article

    The Chelmno killing center was the first stationary facility where poison gas was used for mass murder of Jews. Killing operations began there in December 1941.

    Chelmno
  • Lachwa

    Article

    As the Nazis conducted the...

  • Oradour-sur-Glane

    Article

    Oradour-sur-Glane was a small farming village of around 350 inhabitants, located near Clermont-Ferrand, some 15 miles west-north-west of Limoges. During World War II, it was located in the German-occupied zone of France. On June 10, 1944, troops of the 2nd Waffen-SS Panzer Division (armored division), Das Reich, massacred 642 people, almost the entire population, and then destroyed the village. After the war, Oradour-sur-Glane rivaled Lidice as an iconic symbol of German crimes against civilians in…

    Tags: resistance
    Oradour-sur-Glane
  • Truman proclaims victory in Europe

    Film

    World War II began with the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 and ended in Allied victory in Europe with the German surrender in May 1945. May 8 was proclaimed VE (Victory in Europe) Day. In this footage, United States president Harry S. Truman proclaims victory in Europe and promises to continue the war in the pacific until the unconditional surrender of Japan.

    Truman proclaims victory in Europe
  • Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding

    Artifact

    These tiny black, white, gold, and clear glass beads were used by Rachel “Chelly” de Groot from November 1942 to April 1944 and recovered by her brother Louis after the war. Chelly used the beads to make handicrafts. On November 16, 1942, Chelly, then 15, Louis, 13, and their parents Meijer and Sophia left Arnhem and went into hiding after the Dutch police warned them of a raid. Meijer and Sophia hid in Amsterdam while Chelly and Louis moved around to different locations. In summer or fall 1943,…

    Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding
  • Lodz

    Article

    The city of Łódź (Lodz) is located about 85 miles southwest of Warsaw, Poland. The Jews of Lodz formed the second largest Jewish community in prewar Poland, after Warsaw. German troops occupied Lodz on September 8, 1939. This was one week after Germany invaded Poland on September 1. Lodz was annexed to Germany as part of the Warthegau. The Germans renamed the city Litzmannstadt, after a German World War I general, Karl Litzmann. The Lodz Ghetto In early February 1940, the Germans established a ghetto…

    Lodz
  • Dawid Sierakowiak

    Article

    Young people's diaries capture some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of David Sierakowiak.

    Dawid Sierakowiak
  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #9, The Einsatzgruppen Case

    Article

    The Einsatzgruppen Case was Case #9 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #9, The Einsatzgruppen Case
  • Berta Koselova Krakauerova

    ID Card

    Berta was born to a Jewish family. Orphaned when she was a child, she was raised by her Uncle Poldi in Vienna. In 1899 she married Bernard Krakauer, a Jewish businessman from her hometown of Mikulov. As was the custom for orphans, Berta wore a black dress at her wedding. The couple settled in the town of Hodonin, where Bernard opened a dry goods and clothing store. They raised six children. 1933-39: With their children grown, Berta's husband retired in 1938. He sold the business and moved with Berta and…

    Berta Koselova Krakauerova
  • Max Krakauer

    ID Card

    Max was the oldest of six children born to Jewish parents in the small Moravian town of Hodonin, where his father ran a dry-goods and clothing store. His family spoke both Czech and German at home, and Max attended German-language schools in Hodonin and Lipnik. He completed his education in 1920. Born with a heart condition, Max lived a sheltered life. 1933-39: Max's father, Bernard, was getting on in years and wanted to retire. Max was not strong enough to take over the business, so the Krakauers sold…

    Max Krakauer
  • Dora Unger

    ID Card

    Dora, her parents, brother, aunt, uncle, and two cousins lived together in her grandfather's home in Essen, Germany. The Ungers were an observant Jewish family, and when Dora was 8, she began to regularly attend meetings of Brit HaNoar, a religious youth organization. 1933-39: In October 1938 a teacher, with tears in her eyes, came to Dora at the municipal pool, saying "Jews cannot swim here anymore." Just weeks later, on November 9, Jews were arrested and their property destroyed. A neighbor tried to…

    Dora Unger
  • Rebecca Pissirilo

    ID Card

    Rebecca was the oldest of three children born to Ladino-speaking, Sephardic-Jewish parents. The Pissirilos lived in Kastoria, a small town in the mountainous region of Greek Macedonia near the Albanian border. Rebecca's father was a successful fabric merchant. The Pissirilo children attended public schools. 1933-39: After finishing elementary school, Rebecca went on to study at secondary school. She liked to sing and enjoyed studying. Rebecca kept a diary, like some of the other girls in her class. The…

    Rebecca Pissirilo
  • Chaya Szabasson Rubinstein

    ID Card

    In 1930 Chaya married Mordecai Rubinstein, a businessman, and moved with him from her hometown of Kozienice to the nearby city of Radom. Chaya had been raised in a religious, Yiddish-speaking Jewish family, and her father owned a lumber mill near the Kozienice birch forest. In Radom, Chaya's husband operated a small bus line. 1933-39: Chaya gave birth to a daughter, Gila, in 1933. In the mid 1930s the Rubinsteins moved back to Kozienice. There, they were trapped when German troops invaded [Poland] in…

    Chaya Szabasson Rubinstein

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