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  • School Report Card Issued in a DP Camp

    Photo

    This report card was issued to Regina Laks, a fifth-grade student at the Herzel Hebrew Public School at the Düppel Center displaced persons camp.

    School Report Card Issued in a DP Camp
  • Simone Weil's falsified student card

    Document

    After adopting a new identity in late 1943, Simone Weil falsified her student card from the year 1938-1939 to bear her assumed name, Simone Werlin. The card verified enrollment in the School of Social Work in Strasbourg. Using forged and falsified documents, Weil was able to move to Chateauroux, France, and establish an operation to rescue Jewish children as a member of the relief and rescue organization Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants (Children's Aid Society; OSE).

    Simone Weil's falsified student card
  • University Student Groups in Nazi Germany

    Article

    Nazi student groups played a key role in aligning German universities with Nazi ideology and in solidifying Nazi power.

    Tags: students youth
    University Student Groups in Nazi Germany
  • Mirjana Babunovic Dimitrijevic

    ID Card

    Mirjana was the second of three children born to well-to-do Serbian parents in the capital of Bosnia, in central Yugoslavia. Her father was a successful businessman and prominent Serbian nationalist. Like her parents, Mirjana was baptized in the Serbian Orthodox faith. Mirjana attended elementary school in the multi-ethnic city of Sarajevo. 1933-39: While in secondary school, Mirjana studied foreign languages and toured western Europe. In 1938 she graduated. That fall she enrolled as a student of English…

    Mirjana Babunovic Dimitrijevic
  • Book Burning

    Article

    Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials. The Nazi burning of books in May 1933 is perhaps the most famous in history. Learn more.

    Book Burning
  • Poster: "Students/Be the Führer's propagandists"

    Photo

    Poster: "Students/Be the Führer's propagandists." With militant appeals to nationalism, freedom, and self-sacrifice, the Nazi Party successfully recruited students disenchanted with German democracy and their current student organizations.

    Poster: "Students/Be the Führer's propagandists"
  • Mir Yeshiva

    Article

    Learn about the escape of rabbis and students of the Mir Yeshiva, the only eastern European yeshiva to survive the Holocaust intact.

    Mir Yeshiva
  • The White Rose Opposition Movement

    Article

    The White Rose, led by students including Hans and Sophie Scholl, was an anti-Nazi group during WWII. Its members spread leaflets denouncing the regime.

  • Karl Marx

    Article

    Karl Marx was a political theorist and philosopher. He published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.

    Karl Marx
  • Ritchie Boys

    Article

    “Ritchie Boys” is a term used for American soldiers who trained at Camp Ritchie during World War II. Several thousand were Jewish refugees from Europe. Learn more.

    Ritchie Boys
  • Theodor Wolff

    Article

    Theodor Wolff was an influential German journalist and vocal opponent of the Nazis. His work was burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.

  • Students and members of the SA unload materials for book burning

    Photo

    Students and members of the SA unload books deemed "un-German" during the book burning in Berlin. The banner reads: "German students march against the un-German spirit." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.

    Students and members of the SA unload materials for book burning
  • Francis Ofner

    ID Card

    Francis grew up in a city with a Jewish community of 5,000. The Ofners belonged to a synagogue that sponsored many social activities, from sports to care for the elderly. In 1931 Francis began law school at the University of Zagreb. While a student, he organized a service that posted on university bulletin boards the translations of speeches by Nazi leaders broadcast on the radio. 1933-39: By the time Hitler became chancellor of Germany, Francis was heavily involved in trying to unify the university's…

    Tags: Yugoslavia
    Francis Ofner
  • Simcha Perlmutter

    ID Card

    Simcha was one of six children born to a Jewish family in the town of Horochow. His father was a Hebrew teacher. Simcha was an excellent student and after studying at universities in Switzerland, France, and Germany, he became a philosophy professor at the university in Lvov. In the early 1920s he married, and by 1929 he and his wife, Fruma, had two daughters, Tchiya and Shulamit. 1933-39: Simcha was a Zionist and throughout the 1930s he encouraged his Jewish students to emigrate to Palestine [Aliyah…

    Simcha Perlmutter
  • Herman Klein

    ID Card

    Herman was the fourth of eight children born to a religious Jewish family in the small town of Sirma, located near the city of Sevlus. The Kleins had a small plot of land, which they farmed, and they also ran a shoe shop. At age four Herman began attending religious school. When he started public elementary school, he continued his religious lessons in the afternoons. 1933-39: In March 1939, the region of Czechoslovakia in which Herman lived was annexed to Hungary. His teacher at school was replaced by a…

    Herman Klein
  • Pass issued to rabbinical student Moshe Zupnik

    Document

    Special pass issued to rabbinical student Moshe Zupnik. Yeshiva students had to obtain special passes from Japanese authorities to leave the "designated area" in order to continue their studies at the Beth Aharon Synagogue, which was located outside the zone. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Tags: Japan Judaism
    Pass issued to rabbinical student Moshe Zupnik
  • Pass for rabbinical student Chaim Gorfinkel

    Document

    Special pass issued to rabbinical student Chaim Gorfinkel. Yeshiva students had to obtain special passes from Japanese authorities to leave the "designated area" in order to continue their studies at the Beth Aharon Synagogue, which was located outside the zone. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Tags: Judaism Japan
    Pass for rabbinical student Chaim Gorfinkel
  • Heidenheim Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Heidenheim DP camp.

    Heidenheim Displaced Persons Camp
  • Mariendorf Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Mariendorf DP camp.

    Mariendorf Displaced Persons Camp
  • Students gather books for book burning

    Photo

    Across Germany, students took books by truck, furniture van, even oxcart, and heaped them into pyres on public squares. This image shows members of the SA and students from the University of Frankfurt with oxen pulling manure carts loaded with books deemed "un-German." Frankfurt am Main, Germany, May 10, 1933.

    Students gather books for book burning
  • Leon Trotsky

    Article

    Leon Trotsky was a communist and close associate of Vladimir Lenin. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933. Learn more.

  • Law Limits Jews in Public Schools

    Timeline Event

    April 25, 1933. On this date, the German government issued the Law against Overcrowding in Schools and Universities, limiting the amount of Jewish students.

    Law Limits Jews in Public Schools
  • Frank Liebermann

    Article

    Explore Frank Liebermann’s biography and learn about his experiences of antisemitism in his home town in Germany before World War II.

  • Misuse of Holocaust Imagery Today: When Is It Antisemitism?

    Article

    Many images and symbols from the Holocaust era have become easily recognizable. The familiarit...

    Tags: antisemitism
  • Book Burning

    Timeline Event

    May 10, 1933. On this date, books deemed "un-German" are publicly burned throughout Germany.

    Book Burning
  • Nazi Propaganda and Censorship

    Article

    Nazi efforts to control forms of communication through censorship and propaganda included control of publications, art, theater, music, movies, and radio.

    Nazi Propaganda and Censorship
  • Edward R. Murrow

    Article

    US radio and TV journalist Edward R. Murrow reported live from London during the Blitz; he also broadcast the first eyewitness account of the liberation of Buchenwald.

  • Judith Schwed

    ID Card

    Judith was the older of two children born to Jewish parents in the town of Kiskunfelegyhaza in southeastern Hungary. Her mother, Anna, and her mother's sister, Kornelia, were close in age and had a contest to see who would be the first to have a baby. Judith's Aunt Kornelia won the contest and cousin Maria was born in December 1931, just three weeks before Judith. 1933-39: Judith's father had a prosperous wholesale business that sold goose meat, down, feathers and quilts. In 1939, the same year that…

    Judith Schwed
  • Emanuel Litwak

    ID Card

    Emanuel, often known by his nickname Manek, was one of five children born to religious Jewish parents in the industrial city of Lvov. After graduating from secondary school, he entered Lvov's polytechnic institute to study civil engineering. 1933-39: At the institute the Jewish students had to stand on the left side of the lecture hall. Once, antisemitic schoolmates broke his jaw because he put up a fight when he was insulted. Manek sued his attackers, but the case was dismissed; the judge said Manek…

    Tags: Lvov Poland
    Emanuel Litwak
  • Jacob Unger

    ID Card

    Jacob was living in Essen, Germany, when he met and married Erna Schumer, who, like him, came from a religious Jewish background. The couple had two children, Max, born in 1923 and Dora, born in 1925. Jacob worked as a salesman, and in the evenings he tutored students in Hebrew. 1933-39: In 1933 when Hitler came to power, Jacob went to Amsterdam to explore the possibility of the family moving there. However, Erna did not want to leave her three sisters who were living in Essen, and she also believed that…

    Jacob Unger
  • Judith Margareth Konijn

    ID Card

    Judith was the younger of two children born to religious, middle-class Jewish parents. Judith's mother, Clara, was Sephardic, a descendant of Jews who had been expelled from Spain in 1492. Her father, Lodewijk, was a traveling representative for a firm based in Amsterdam. The family lived in an apartment in a new section of Amsterdam on the southern outskirts. 1933-39: Judith attended grade school with her cousin Hetty who was the same age. Judith loved to study. Her mother taught piano to students who…

    Tags: Amsterdam
    Judith Margareth Konijn
  • Joseph Gani

    ID Card

    Joseph and his family lived in Preveza, a town with a Jewish population of 300 that was located on the Ionian seashore. Joseph's father had a small textile shop. The Ganis were of Romaniot descent, Jews whose ancestors had lived in Greece and the Balkans for more than a thousand years. 1933-39: Joseph attended Greek public school in Preveza. He also received a religious education; the local rabbi would come to the public school for several hours a week to give religious instruction to the Jewish students.…

    Joseph Gani
  • Mishneh Torah

    Artifact

    A page from the Mishneh Torah, one of many texts reprinted in Shanghai during the war. Yeshiva students spent part of each day listening to teachers lecture on the Talmud, the collection of ancient Rabbinic writings and commentaries composed of the Mishnah and the Gemara that form the basis of religious authority in Judaism. During the rest of the day, students paired up to review selections from the lecture. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Mishneh Torah
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Förster

    Article

    Friedrich Wilhelm Förster was an author, educator, and philosopher. In 1933, his works were denounced as subversive and burned in Nazi Germany. Learn more.

  • Werner Hegemann

    Article

    Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.

  • Erich Kästner

    Article

    Erich Kästner was a popular political satirist and left-liberal author whose works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.

  • Karl Kautsky

    Article

    Karl Kautsky was a leading Marxist and Socialist theoretician in the Austrian Social Democratic movement. His books were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.

    Karl Kautsky
  • Arnold Zweig

    Article

    Arnold Zweig was a German novelist and playwright. The Nazis denounced him as a pacifist, and his works were burned in 1933. Learn more.

  • Kurt Tucholsky

    Article

    Kurt Tucholsky was a German satirist who criticized the Nazis during their rise to power. In 1933, his works were burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.

  • Carl von Ossietzky

    Article

    Carl von Ossietzky was a German journalist, pacifist, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate whose articles were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.

  • Klaus Mann

    Article

    Klaus Mann was a German author whose novel “Mephisto” exposed the evil of the Nazi dictatorship. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in May 1933. Learn more.

  • Ernst Toller

    Article

    Ernst Toller was one of the best-known German dramatists of the 1920s. He wrote against Nazism, and was among those whose works were burned under the Nazi regime.

    Ernst Toller
  • Erich Maria Remarque

    Article

    Erich Maria Remarque wrote the classic novel “All Quiet on the Western Front,” which became a Hollywood film. His works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933.

  • Sigmund Freud

    Article

    Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis. The Nazis abhorred his new science and Jewish heritage. His works were burned in Germany in 1933. Learn more.

    Sigmund Freud
  • Georg Bernhard

    Article

    Georg Bernhard was a prominent financial columnist. The Nazis declared that German journalism must be "cleansed" of Jews. Bernhard’s work was burned in 1933.

    Georg Bernhard
  • Ernst Gläser

    Article

    Ernst Gläser wrote the antiwar novel "Jahrgang 1902." His works, considered leftist and anti-fascist, were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.

  • Heinrich Mann

    Article

    Heinrich Mann was an author and early target of the Nazis for his political views. His writings were among those burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.

    Heinrich Mann
  • Students and teachers in Munkacs

    Photo

    Group portrait of students and teachers at the Hebrew gymnasium in Munkacs. 1936-1937.

    Students and teachers in Munkacs
  • Immediate American Responses to the Nazi Book Burnings

    Article

    The Nazi book burnings of 1933 sparked responses from anti-Fascist organizations, Jewish groups, and writers in the United States. Learn more.

    Tags: book burning
    Immediate American Responses to the Nazi Book Burnings
  • Passover Haggadah printed in Shanghai

    Artifact

    A Passover Haggadah published by rabbinical students in Shanghai in 1943. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Passover Haggadah printed in Shanghai

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